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Level 117

Newton's First Law of Motion


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Natural motion
Anything that moves with or against gravity
Unnatural motion
Anything that moves other than with or against the force of gravity
inertia
_______ is the property of an object that leads it to resist any change in motion
Galileo Galilei
A man from Italy who first proposed the law of inertia as well as making observations on the Moon, sun, Venus, and jupiter
Speed
Units: cm/s, m/s, mi/hr, km/s ...
Average Speed
Distance traveled divided by the time required to cover the distance
Instantaneous Speed
Magnitude of instantaneous velocity
Velocity
a speed in a particular direction.
Vector quantity
9.8m/s per second is a
force
(interactions between two objects)
displacement
A change in position (delta p).
Reference Point
A _______ is a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion.
Scalar Quantity
a measure of magnitude
The Pythagorean Theorem
a^2 + b^2 = c^2
0.2248 lbs
1 N = how many lbs?
4.4 N
1 lb = how many Newtons?
Isaac Newton
A man from England who realized that the planets move around the Sun because of inertia as well as developing the laws of motion and gravity
Free body diagram
A diagram that shows all forces acting on an object, with proper relative magnitudes and directions for objects
∑F = 0
The Equilibrium Rule:
Support force
The force that acts against the surface that an object rests on (does NOT always counteract weight)
Dynamic equilibrium
A state of motion where an object is moving with constant velocity
Static equilibrium
A state of motion where an object is at rest
Coriolis Effect
An effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation
Foucault Pendulum
A pendulum whose swing plane changes accordingly throughout the day to the direction of the earth's rotation
Newton's First Law of Motion
An object in motion will stay in motion forever unless it is acted on by an unbalanced force and an object at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it as well.
Mechanical Equilibrium
The state of an object or system of objects for which there are no changes in motion. In accord with Newton's first law, if at rest, the state of rest persists. If moving, motion continues without change.
Equilibrium Rule
For any object or system of objects in equilibrium, the sum of the forces acting equals zero. In equation form, EF=0.