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Level 106

Simple Harmonic Motion


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Hooke's law
Fs= -kx
simple harmonic motion
motion that is repeated because displacement and restoring force are proportional
displacement
A change in position (delta p).
amplitude
height of a peak above the baseline
period
amount of time required to complete one oscillation
Frequency
#cycles/second
hertz
unit for frequency=1/s; Hz
Wave
A disturbance in matter that carries energy from one place to another is called a _______.
periodic wave
A wave that has pulses that occur at regular intervals.
Wavelength
distance between two consecutive crests which are in phase with one another
wave speed
distance a wave moves per unit time; v
transverse wave
A wave that vibrates at right angles to the line of rest or equilbrium position.
longitudinal wave
A wave that vibrates parallel to the line of rest or equilibrium position.
compression
A force that pushes on or squeezes a material.
rarefaction
a part in a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart
crest
Highest point of a wave.
trough
Lowest point of a wave.
Interference
the combination of two or more waves that results in a single wave
Constructive interference
Bright bands are
Destructive interference
Dark bands are
reflection
a wave strikes a boundary and bounces back
refraction
a wave is bent due to a change in speed
dispersion
When white light is passed through a glass prism it splits into its constituent colours
Diffraction
the bending and spreading of waves, usually around an obstacle
standing wave
The resultant of two wave trains of the same wavelength, frequency, and amplitude travelling in opposite directions through the same medium.
node
A point in a standing wave at which negative interference results in a constant amplitude of zero.
antinode
point on a standing wave with the highest amplitude
Natural Frequency
frequency at which an object will vibrate if disturbed
fundamental frequency
lowest frequency which produces a standing wave
harmonic series
a sequence of frequencies which produce standing waves
Resonance
a phenomenon that occurs when two objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency; the sound produced by one object causes the other object to vibrate
maximum velocity pendulum
at the bottom of the swing
maximum acceleration pendulum
at the top of the swing
maximum force pendulum
at the top of the swing
maximum speed spring-weight
at the origin
maximum acceleration spring-weight
at maximum displacement, a=max
maximum force spring-weight
at maximum displacement F=max
2π√(m/k)
T (spring-weight system)
2π√(L/g)
T (pendulum)
v (wave)
pulse wave
single nonperiodic disturbance