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Level 611

Position, Velocity & Acceleration


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kinetmatics
modern name for mathematical description of motion, without regard of causes
-the right of the x-axis
which sides of the coordinate system are positive in motion?
-position graph
position-vs-time graph (other name and definition)
a graph is an_
abstract representation of motion
-In horizontal plane, the motion can be from right lo left
what are the motions that can be done in 1-dimension movement in horizontal plane? in vertical?
what is the relation between speed and velocity?
speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector and is always positive
the faster the speed=the steeper the slope
how the speed relates in a position graph or position-vs-time graph?
how determine slope of position graph?
rise/run= change in X/ change in t
velocity at that point in the motion
The slope of an object's position-versus-time graph is the object's _
by reading the graph at that instant of time time
How the information about motion can be obtained from a position-vs-time graphs in the following case: Determine an object's position at time t_
by finding the slope of the position graph at that point. Steeper slopes correspond to faster speeds
How the information about motion can be obtained from a position-vs-time graphs in the following case: Determine the object's velocity at time t
-intervals
the slope is a ratio of_not a ratio of_
physical meaningful slope
-the slope obtained by measuring the rise and run using the scales along the axes
what is the problem of the velocity-vs-time graph?
it does not tell us the start position in reference to the origin
what is the acceleration formula?
ax= change in velocity (v)/ change in temperature
0 at all time because velocity is not changing
when the velocity is constant, what is the value of acceleration? why?
the value of the instantaneous velocity Vx at that point
the slope of a line tangent to to x(t) curve at any point equals _
How acceleration relates with velocity?
-The acceleration bears the same relationship to velocity as velocity bears to change in x (position)
How the MD (Motion Detector) of our experiment works?
-The MD emits sound pulses several times a second
Where is the origin located when using the MD?
The position is measured from the motion detector, so the motion detector is the origin of a coordinate axis
How are the graphs made by walking slowly different from the ones made by walking rapidly?
-The graphs made by walking faster have steeper slopes than the ones made by walking slowly
walk away from MD
positive slope in a position-vs-time graph means
walk toward MD
Negative slope in a position-vs-time graph means
slow walking
shallow slope in a position graph means
fast walking
steep slope in a position-vs-time graph means
constant velocity (speed and sign (direction))
what type of motion corresponds to a straight line on a position vs. time graph?
-Increasing or decreasing speed as go
what type of motion corresponds to a curved line on a position vs. time graph?
define velocity
rate of change in position with respect to time
Speed
D / T
the magnitude of velocity
what is speed? (in relation with velocity)
-Away is above the time axis
How are the velocity-vs-time graphs made by walking away from the MD different from the ones made by walking toward the MD?
Fast is farther away from time axis than slow, which is closer to time axis
How are the velocity-vs-time graphs made by walking slowly different from the ones made by walking rapidly?
moving away
what does it mean in a velocity-vs-time graph: the horizontal line is above the t-axis?
moving toward
what does it mean in a velocity-vs-time graph: the horizontal line is below the t-axis?
moving fast
what does it mean in a velocity-vs-time graph: the horizontal line is far from the t-axis?
moving slow
what does it mean in a velocity-vs-time graph: the horizontal line is close to the t-axis?
how speed and velocity definitions differ?
-the speed of an object is how fast the object is moving
-motion in the positive direction
For motion along a line, a positive velocity indicates_(2)
-motion in the negative direction
For motion along a line, a negative velocity indicates_
absolute value of the velocity
For motion along a line, speed is the _
Question is ambiguous because graph does not show it (no realistic)
What is the velocity of an object in a velocity vs. time graph that shows a vertical line?
-No, because you need time to arrive to next velocity. Thus would be impossible to have a straight line
Is it possible for an object to move in a way that corresponds to an absolutely vertical line on a velocity time graph? Explain
slope
(y₂-y₁)/(x₂-x₁)
distance (m)
On a y vs x graph, the equation of a straight line is y=mx + b. On a x vs. t graph, what is the name of the variable that corresponds to: y (variable on the vertical axis)
time (s)
On a y vs x graph, the equation of a straight line is y=mx + b. On a x vs. t graph, what is the name of the variable that corresponds to: x (variable on the horizontal axis)
velocity (m/s)
On a y vs x graph, the equation of a straight line is y=mx + b. On a x vs. t graph, what is the name of the variable that corresponds to: m (slope)
initial point from origin (m)
On a y vs x graph, the equation of a straight line is y=mx + b. On a x vs. t graph, what is the name of the variable that corresponds to: b (the vertical intercept)
Distance=velocity X time + initial point from origin
On a X vs. t graph, what is the equation that corresponds to y= mx+b?
steeper slope
What does a position graph looks like for an object that is moving: fast?
shallow slope
What does a position graph looks like for an object that is moving: slow?
line far away from axis
What does a velocity graph looks like for an object that is moving: fast?
line close to axis
What does a velocity graph looks like for an object that is moving: slow?
The velocity changes of signs
How can you tell from a velocity vs. time graph that the moving object has changed direction?
Line is a straight line
How can you tell from a position-time graph that you motion is steady (motion at a constant velocity)?
Line is a horizontal straight line
How can you tell from a velocity vs time graph that your motion is steady?
acceleration
a=v¹= dx/dt
Acceleration definition
Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time
acceleration formula
acceleration= change in velocity/change in time
Displacement
Fluid being pushed back out of the way by an object and talking its place.
-If you are speeding up= velocity and acceleration have same signs (+/+ or -/-)
How can you predict the sign of the acceleration of you know the sign of your velocity (your direction of motion) and whether you are speeding up or slowing down? State general rule
Do not move and stay in the same position from MD
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: horizontal line?
Move at constant velocity
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: straight line?
Move away MD
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: Line or curve with positive slope?
Move toward MD
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: line or curve with negative slope?
Move constantly fast
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: Line or curve with steep slope?
Move constantly slow
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: Line or curve with shallow slope?
Speeding up
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: curve whose slope changes from shallow to steep?
slowing down
What is the general rule of a position vs time graph for: Curve whose slope changes from steep to shallow?
Do not move
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: horizontal line on t-axis ?
move at same/constant velocity
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: Horizontal line?
Constant acceleration
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: straight line?
Move toward MD (negative direction)
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: line or curve below the t-axis?
Move away MD (positive direction)
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: Line or curve above the t-axis?
Move slowly
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: Line or curve close to t-axis?
move fast
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: Line or curve far from t-axis ?
slow down
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: line or curve sloped toward t-axis?
speed up
What is the general rule of a velocity vs time graph for: line or curve sloped away from t-axis?
*LACK LAB 7 AND 9*
*BECAUSE THEY ARE UNDONE FOR THE MOMENT*
velocity describes the_
-rate at which an object changes position
the ratio of change of velocity
Acceleration is defined as the ratio of_
Acceleration is defined as the_(in a graph)
slope of a velocity vs time graph
m/s^2
what are the acceleration units?
straight line
the graph of a linear equation is a...
-That the velocity is constant (does not change) (ex: remains at 2 m/s)
If a acceleration vs time graph shows a line that remains horizontal over the t-axis, what does this means?
vector
the direction or course followed by an airplane, missile, or the like
-same
The acceleration vector points in the_direction as the velocity vector for an object that is speeding up and _for an object that is slowing down
-is to change its direction of motion rather than its speed
what is another way to change the acceleration of an object without speeding up and slowing down?
what is the average acceleration formula?
average acceleration= change in velocity/ change in time
the same direction
when an object speeds up, the velocity vector and acceleration vector point in_
opposite directions
when an object slows down, the velocity vector and acceleration vector point in_
instantaneous acceleration (definition and formula)
-the average acceleration computer over a very short time interval