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Qualitative Paradigms


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peer check
peer review of the research to assess whether the findings are plausible based on the data set.
phenomenology
a methodology that looks at the study of a phenomenon; researcher bias is removed to conduct the study
positivism
a philosophical paradigm rooted in the belief that there is a universal reality that humans can know through empirical investigation
post positivism
a philosophical paradigm that accepts the belief that there is a universal reality, but asserts that humans are limited to perceiving that reality through an individual contextual lens.
saturation
the point of redundancy in data collection,
thematic analysis
as coding and memoing takes place, themes begin to emerge from the data; a transcript of an interview is marked in relation to emerging themes.
thick description
a rich recording of environment, circumstances, meanings, intentions, strategies, and motivations that characterize a particular observation.
etic
one end of a spectrum describing the outsider perspective of a phenomenon
Interpretivism
theory of qualitative research that seeks to understand and explain the phenomena in the research study
method
procedure to collect data
triangulation
a procedure used to verify validity of the data by testing one source of data against another
emic
one end of a spectrum describing the individual member level perspective
epistemology
study of the nature of knowledge; how you know what you know
ethnography
a methodology that is the study of a culture
grounded theory
methodology seeking to create a theory based on findings
interview guide
A list of topics to be covered in an interview. Similar to a questionnaire, but much less structured, and without multiple-response questions. Used mainly in semi-structured interviews and group discussions.
member check
the validation of data gathered from interview by calibrating findings with participants in the project
methodology
theory of how inquiry should proceed
paradigm
set of beliefs that guides actions and theory of research
participant observation
researcher role is to activity participate as well as conduct the research study
artifact
document, object or archival data of import to a participant
auto-ethnography
a methodology that is the study of your personal experience
case study
analysis consists of making a detailed description of the case and it's setting (Creswell, 2013).
confirmability
part of the four trustworthiness criteria; establishing the fact that data collected in a study is true to the participants voice and the interpretations of data were not made up; member check is an example
analysis
breaking down a data set and then reassembling it into meaning that informs your research question
audit trail
a systematically maintained documentation system; an organized collection of materials that includes the data generated in a study
Bias
A systematic error that favors a particular segment of the population or that tends to encourage only certain outcomes in the data.
coding
a data reduction process for a researcher to break down data into discrete themes or patterns
constructionism
theory of qualitative research that believes knowledge and reality are built on human interaction and experiences within a social context
context
Tells who was measured, what was measured, how the data were collected, where the data was collected, and when and why the study was performed.
critical inquiry
theory of qualitative research that emphasizes power relationships in society and uncovers issues of hegemony and injustice
document
written texts prepared for personal reasons
dependability
part of the four trustworthiness characteristics; stability of data over time; if the study were repeated would you get the same result? Example would be method and analysis sections.
conversational interview
unstructured interview with open-ended questions
positioning statement
the way in which a researcher explains his stance, role, and bias
trustworthiness
Credibility, in the rhetoric of qualitative research
representation
Denzing and Lincoln (2006) questions whose reality is really represented
purposeful sampling
designed to get the richest data possible by carefully selecting participants
semi=structured interview
Galletta, 2013