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statistics
The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions
Descriptive Statistics
The methods of organizing and summarizing data
Inferential Statistics
Involves making generalizations from a sample to a population
Population
the entire group of items or individuals for which a sample is taken (the entire American _______________________, New jersey is a sample)
Variable
an alphabetic character representing a number, called the value, which is either arbitrary or not fully specified or unknown. It is usually a letter like x or y.
Measurement
The process we use to assign numbers to variables of individual population units.
census
Used to measure a variable for every unit of a population.
sample
a randomly selected group chosen for the purpose of collecting data. ie 3 middle schools in Monmouth county to determine information regarding typical Middle School student in Monmouth County
Statistical inference
An estimate, prediction, or some other generalization about a population based on information contained in a sample. That is, we use the information contained in the smaller sample to learn about the larger population.
Reliability
How good the inference is.
Resource constraints
Constraining factors (insufficient time and / or money) that affect a statistical method of data collection.
Uncertainty (Degree of)
The element introduced when a measure of reliability is not used.
Bound on the estimation error
A number that our estimation error is not likely to exceed
Measure of reliability
A statement (usually quantified) about the degree of uncertainty associated with a statistical inference.
Quantitative Data
Measurements that are recorded on a naturally occurring numerical scale.
Qualitative Data
Measurements that cannot be measured on a natural numerical scale; they can only be classified into one of a group of categories.
Published source
The data set of interest has already been collected for you and is available.
Designed experiment
A method of collecting data that involves a ______________ in which the researcher exerts strict control over the units in the study.
observational study
The researcher observes the experimental units in their natural setting and records the variable(s) of interest. The researcher makes no attempt to control any aspect of the experimental units.
Representative sample
Exhibits characteristics typical of those possessed by the target population.
Random sample
Ensures that every subset of fixed size in the population has the same chance of being included in the sample.
Parameters
Statistical measures that are computed regarding the characteristics of a population.
Sample design
Refers to the technique employed to select a subset of participants from the population and gather the data from the population.
Convenience sampling
In this design, members of the population are chosen based on the convenience of including them.
Bias
A systematic error that favors a particular segment of the population or that tends to encourage only certain outcomes in the data.
Multi-stage cluster sample
The process involves taking stages and SRS's within a cluster. While this multi-stage technique sounds very complicated, it is atually quite efficient and cost-effective.
sampling frame
The list of possible subjects who could be selected in a sample.
Household bias
Another type of bias involving the power of smaller households in relation to larger ones
Random sampling error
Error that occurs because of chance variation
Sampling method error
Error that occurs because of the choice of sampling method.
Non-sampling method error
Error that occurs in the responses by members in the sample.
Comparative experiment
A type of experimental design that involves two or more groups.
Explanation
Independent (explanation) variables
response
Dependent (response) variables
Control group
Consists of the units who are not to receive the treatment that is the focus of the experiment
Treatment group
Units in this group receive the treatment.
Confounded variables
Two variables are _______________ if the investigator cannot separately identify their effects on the response variable.
Lurking variables
A variable that has an effect on the response variable but is not measured as part of the study of interest.
factors
the numbers being multiplied
Levels
A treatment is a combination of specific values of each of the factors; these values are called _______________.
Statistical thinking
Involves applying rational thought to assess data and the inferences made from them critically.