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statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions

Descriptive Statistics

The methods of organizing and summarizing data

Inferential Statistics

Involves making generalizations from a sample to a population

Population

the entire group of items or individuals for which a sample is taken (the entire American _______________________, New jersey is a sample)

Variable

an alphabetic character representing a number, called the value, which is either arbitrary or not fully specified or unknown. It is usually a letter like x or y.

Measurement

The process we use to assign numbers to variables of individual population units.

census

Used to measure a variable for every unit of a population.

sample

a randomly selected group chosen for the purpose of collecting data. ie 3 middle schools in Monmouth county to determine information regarding typical Middle School student in Monmouth County

Statistical inference

An estimate, prediction, or some other generalization about a population based on information contained in a sample. That is, we use the information contained in the smaller sample to learn about the larger population.

Reliability

How good the inference is.

Resource constraints

Constraining factors (insufficient time and / or money) that affect a statistical method of data collection.

Uncertainty (Degree of)

The element introduced when a measure of reliability is not used.

Bound on the estimation error

A number that our estimation error is not likely to exceed

Measure of reliability

A statement (usually quantified) about the degree of uncertainty associated with a statistical inference.

Quantitative Data

Measurements that are recorded on a naturally occurring numerical scale.

Qualitative Data

Measurements that cannot be measured on a natural numerical scale; they can only be classified into one of a group of categories.

Published source

The data set of interest has already been collected for you and is available.

Designed experiment

A method of collecting data that involves a ______________ in which the researcher exerts strict control over the units in the study.

observational study

The researcher observes the experimental units in their natural setting and records the variable(s) of interest. The researcher makes no attempt to control any aspect of the experimental units.

Representative sample

Exhibits characteristics typical of those possessed by the target population.

Random sample

Ensures that every subset of fixed size in the population has the same chance of being included in the sample.

Parameters

Statistical measures that are computed regarding the characteristics of a population.

Sample design

Refers to the technique employed to select a subset of participants from the population and gather the data from the population.

Convenience sampling

In this design, members of the population are chosen based on the convenience of including them.

Bias

A systematic error that favors a particular segment of the population or that tends to encourage only certain outcomes in the data.

Multi-stage cluster sample

The process involves taking stages and SRS's within a cluster. While this multi-stage technique sounds very complicated, it is atually quite efficient and cost-effective.

sampling frame

The list of possible subjects who could be selected in a sample.

Household bias

Another type of bias involving the power of smaller households in relation to larger ones

Random sampling error

Error that occurs because of chance variation

Sampling method error

Error that occurs because of the choice of sampling method.

Non-sampling method error

Error that occurs in the responses by members in the sample.

Comparative experiment

A type of experimental design that involves two or more groups.

Explanation

Independent (explanation) variables

response

Dependent (response) variables

Control group

Consists of the units who are not to receive the treatment that is the focus of the experiment

Treatment group

Units in this group receive the treatment.

Confounded variables

Two variables are _______________ if the investigator cannot separately identify their effects on the response variable.

Lurking variables

A variable that has an effect on the response variable but is not measured as part of the study of interest.

factors

the numbers being multiplied

Levels

A treatment is a combination of specific values of each of the factors; these values are called _______________.

Statistical thinking

Involves applying rational thought to assess data and the inferences made from them critically.