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The science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions
The methods of organizing and summarizing data
Involves making generalizations from a sample to a population
the entire group of items or individuals for which a sample is taken (the entire American _______________________, New jersey is a sample)
an alphabetic character representing a number, called the value, which is either arbitrary or not fully specified or unknown. It is usually a letter like x or y.
The process we use to assign numbers to variables of individual population units.
Used to measure a variable for every unit of a population.
a randomly selected group chosen for the purpose of collecting data. ie 3 middle schools in Monmouth county to determine information regarding typical Middle School student in Monmouth County
An estimate, prediction, or some other generalization about a population based on information contained in a sample. That is, we use the information contained in the smaller sample to learn about the larger population.
How good the inference is.
Constraining factors (insufficient time and / or money) that affect a statistical method of data collection.
Uncertainty (Degree of)
The element introduced when a measure of reliability is not used.
Bound on the estimation error
A number that our estimation error is not likely to exceed
Measure of reliability
A statement (usually quantified) about the degree of uncertainty associated with a statistical inference.
Measurements that are recorded on a naturally occurring numerical scale.
Measurements that cannot be measured on a natural numerical scale; they can only be classified into one of a group of categories.
The data set of interest has already been collected for you and is available.
A method of collecting data that involves a ______________ in which the researcher exerts strict control over the units in the study.
The researcher observes the experimental units in their natural setting and records the variable(s) of interest. The researcher makes no attempt to control any aspect of the experimental units.
Exhibits characteristics typical of those possessed by the target population.
Ensures that every subset of fixed size in the population has the same chance of being included in the sample.
Statistical measures that are computed regarding the characteristics of a population.
Refers to the technique employed to select a subset of participants from the population and gather the data from the population.
In this design, members of the population are chosen based on the convenience of including them.
A systematic error that favors a particular segment of the population or that tends to encourage only certain outcomes in the data.
Multi-stage cluster sample
The process involves taking stages and SRS's within a cluster. While this multi-stage technique sounds very complicated, it is atually quite efficient and cost-effective.
The list of possible subjects who could be selected in a sample.
Another type of bias involving the power of smaller households in relation to larger ones
Random sampling error
Error that occurs because of chance variation
Sampling method error
Error that occurs because of the choice of sampling method.
Non-sampling method error
Error that occurs in the responses by members in the sample.
A type of experimental design that involves two or more groups.
Independent (explanation) variables
Dependent (response) variables
Consists of the units who are not to receive the treatment that is the focus of the experiment
Units in this group receive the treatment.
Two variables are _______________ if the investigator cannot separately identify their effects on the response variable.
A variable that has an effect on the response variable but is not measured as part of the study of interest.
the numbers being multiplied
A treatment is a combination of specific values of each of the factors; these values are called _______________.
Involves applying rational thought to assess data and the inferences made from them critically.