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Level 228

Summarizing & Graphing Data

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frequency distribution (or frequency table)
Shows how a data set is partitioned among all of several categories (or classes) by listing all of the categories along with the number of data values in each of the categories.
Lower class limits
The smallest number that can belong to the different classes. (Table 2-2 has lower class limits of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120.)
Upper class limits
The largest numbers that can belong to the different classes. (Table 2-2 has upper class limits of 69, 79, 89, 99, 109, 119, 129.)
Class width
The difference between two consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive lower class boundaries in a frequency distribution. (Table 2-2 uses a class width of 10.)
relative frequency distribution (Sometimes called a percentage frequency distribution.)
The frequency of a class is replaced with a relative frequency (a proportion) or a percentage frequency (a percent). The sum of the relative frequencies in a relative frequency distribution must be close to 1 (or 100%).
Cumulative frequency
The sum of the frequencies for that class and all previous classes.
horizontal scale for histogram
Use class boundaries or class midpoints.
vertical scale for histogram
Use the class frequencies.
Frequency polygon
Uses line segments connected to points located directly above class midpoint values.
relative frequency polygon
A variation of the basic frequency polygon, which uses relative frequencies (proportions or percentages) for the vertical scale.
ogive ("oh-jive")
A line graph that depicts cumulative frequencies; uses class boundaries along the horizontal scale, and cumulative frequencies along the vertical scale. Useful for determining the number of values below some particular value.
Consists of a graph in which each data value is plotted as a point (or dot) along a scale of values. Dots representing equal values are stacked.
stemplots (or stem-and-leaf plot)
Represents quantitative data by separating each value into two parts: the stem (such as the leftmost digit) and the leaf (such as the rightmost digit).
Bar graph
Bars do not touch; categorical data is typically on the horizontal axis; to describe: comment on which occurred the most often or least often
pie charts
A graph that depicts qualitative data as slices of a circle, in which the size of each slice is proportional to the frequency count for the category.
time-series graph
A graph of time-series data, which are quantitative data that have been collected at different points in time.
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Variation: A measure of the amount that the data values vary.
Distribution: The nature or shape of the spread of the data over the range of values (such as bell-shaped, uniform, or skewed).
Outliers: Sample values taht lie very far away from the vast majority of the other sample values.
Time: Changing characteristics of the data over time.
Formulative Evaluation
See how well a procedure is working and to make adjustments if it is not working well. "throughout"
Summative Evaluation
end result of an intervention or series of interventions.
Line graphs
Used to display data in a serial manner across the duration of instruction or intervention.
Set of boundaries on a graph. x-axis and y-axis.
Shows how frequently data were collected during the period represented on the graph. (bottom boundary) (sessions)
Identifies target behavior and kind of data being reported. (performance)
Ordinate Scale
Scale on the y axis. Used to record the performance of the target behavior. Always begins at "0"
Scale break
Ordinate scale is NOT continuous.
Data point
sm. geometric forms used to represent the occurrence of the target behavior during a time segment. (circles, squares, triangles)
Data Path
when a solid line is drawn connecting the data points.
Cumulative frequency distribution
Frequency distribution in which each class and frequency represents cumulative data up to and including that class.
Exploratory data analysis (EDA)
Branch of statistics emphasizing the investigation of data.
Frequency distribution
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution. The height of the bars indicates the frequency of a group of scores.
Multiple bar graph
Bar graph with two or more sets of bars used to compare two or more data sets.
normal distribution
Bell-shaped probability distribution where the frequencies start low, then increase to one or two high frequencies, then decrease to a low frequency. The distribution is approximately symmetric.
Graphical representation of a cumulative frequency distribution.
Values that are very unusual in the sense that they are very far away from most of the data.
Pareto Chart
Bar graph for qualitative data, with the bars arranged in order according to frequencies.
Pie Chart
Graphical representation of data in the form of a circle containing wedges.
Relative Frequency
the ratio of the frequency of a category to the total frequency
Relative frequency distribution
Variation of the basic frequency polygon which uses relative frequencies (proportions or percentages).
Relative frequency histogram
Variation of the basic histogram in which frequencies are replaced by relative frequencies (proportions or percentages).
Scatter plot
is a graph used to determine whether there is a relationship between paired data. Scatter plots can show trends in data.
Represents quantitative data by separating each value into two parts: the stem (such as the leftmost digit) and the leaf (such as the rightmost digit).. Also called a Stem-and-Leaf plot.
Flip the left side of the equation to the right side.
Time-series data
Data that have been collected at different points in time.
Difference of values; spread