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Level 224

Probability


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P(event)
measures the likelyhood an event will occur
Trial
each result/observation of an experiment, such as one roll of a number cube.
probability
is measured between 0 and 1
Probability( ratio)
is a ratio of the number of times an event occurs compared to the total possible outcomes
sample space
is the set of all possible outcomes
Zero probability
means event not possible
Probability of 1/2
means event is as likely as not to occur
Probability of one
means event is certain to occur
Fundamental Counting principal
multiply the total number of possible outcomes for each event together. Roll one number cube is 6 possible outcomes. Spin a spinner with 2 equal sections is 2 possible outcomes. Together teh outcomes are 6 x 2 = 12
simple events
one outcome or a collection of outcomes
outcome
any one of the possible results of an action
random
Outcomes occur at random if each outcome is equally likely to occur.
complementary event
The events of one outcome happening and that outcome not happening are complementary events. The sum of the probabilities of complementary events is 1.
sample spaces
A list of all of the possible outcomes in a probability experiment. It is easy to find the number of outcomes you are supposed to have in your sample space if you use FCP.
fair game
is a game in which players have an equal chance of winning
Theoretical Probability
What the outcomes were supposed to be theoretically.
experimental probability
What the outcomes did turn out to be in an experiment.
dependent event
The outcome depends on any other events.
independent event
The outcome does not depend on any other event. In other words, it is "independent"
biased sample
when one or more parts of the population are favored more over the other choosing an advanced math class to represent the whole school
complementary events
P(green) and P(not green) are called....
Fundamental Counting Principle
(# of choices)(# of choices) = total outcomes
independent events
when one event does not effect the other
Permutation
possible outcomes when position is important; ie 24 people run a race, how many outcomes are their for 1sr, 2nd, and 3rd place
dependent events
when one events effects the outcome of another event (without replacement)
Simple Event
one outcome or a single collection of outcomes
compound event
an event consisting of two or more simple events (choosing a red sock and a blue sock)
Population
the entire group of items or individuals for which a sample is taken (the entire American _______________________, New jersey is a sample)
sample
a randomly selected group chosen for the purpose of collecting data. ie 3 middle schools in Monmouth county to determine information regarding typical Middle School student in Monmouth County
survey
a question or set of questions designed to collect data
Tree Diagram
used to show a sample space
box-and- whisker plot
a graphic way to display the median, quartiles, and extremes of a data set on a number line to show the distribution of the data
interquartile
lies between the lower and upper quartile
lower quartile
the median of the lower half of a set of data
Mean
the sum of all the values divided by the number of values
Measures of Central Tendency
used to describe the center of a set of data: mean, median, mode
measures of variation
used to describe the distribution of data
Median
A segment or Ray that joins a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side
Mode
the most common value
outlier
a data value that is either much greater or much less than the median
quartiles
a value that divides the data set into for equal parts
Range
The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data.
odds
favorable outcomes divided by unfavorable outcomes
equally likely
equal probability of occurance
expected outcome
the event that should occur
inferences
conclusions drawn from a sample set or sets
unbiased sample
most accurately describes the entire population: every 20th from an alphabetical list
Histogram
A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution. The height of the bars indicates the frequency of a group of scores.
Frequency distribution
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
Law of Large Numbers
As the number of trials in a probability experiment increases, the experimental probability approaches the theoretical probability.
Stem & Leaf Plot
a graph that is ordered from least to greatest and is organized by place value.
Event
a single outcome or a group of outcomes