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Level 146

Introduction to Logic


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genus
term that is more general, broad, or abstract that the original and includes it
Intension
the sum of all common attributes denoted by the term
Extension
the sum of all the individual objects described by it
real disagreement
actual inconsistency between two statements: they cannot both be true at the same time
categorical statement
statement that affirms or denies something about a given subject
persuasive definition
definition that aims to persuade the listener one way or another
verbal disagreement
misunderstanding due to differing definitions for one or more words
logic
science and art of reasoning well
stipulative definition
definition of a new word or existing word that is applied in a new way
Ambiguous
word that has more than one definition
precising definition
definition that seeks to make more precise what was vague or fuzzy
quality
positive or negative nature of its claim about the subject (affirmative or negative)
predicate
describes or asserts something about the subject
quantity
the scope of its claim about the extension of the subject (universal or particular)
subject
the term being described or about which something is being asserted
Contradiction
Two statements are in blank if and only if they always have opposite truth values
theoretical definition
definitions that are scientific or philosophical in nature
mutually exclusive
terms do not overlap
definition
statement that gives the meaning of a term
self-supporting statements
a statement whose truth value can be determined from the statement itself
vague
word whose extent is unclear
self-contradiction
statement that is false due to its logical nature
supported statement
a statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from outside itself
contrary
Two statements are blank if and only if they can both be false but cannot both be true.
subcontraries
Two statements are blank if and only if both can be true but both cannot be false.
subimplication
relationship between a universal and particular statement of the same quality in which the truth of the universal necessitates the truth of the particular
superimplication
the relationship between a universal and particular statement of the same quality in which the falsity of particular necessitates the falsity of the universal
deduction
reasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions
induction
reasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules
Law of Noncontradiction
a statement can not be both true and false
informal logic
deals with operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning
Law of Identity
if a statement is true then it is true
implication
the truth of one statement requires the truth of another
independent
the truth or falsity of one has no effect on the truth or falsity of the other
logically equivalent
two statements that imply one another
Law of the Excluded Middle
any statement is either true or false
Syllogism
type of deductive argument in which the conclusion connects on category with another, with one conclusion, two premises, and three terms