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Level 144

Patterns of Inductive Reasoning


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inductive generalization
attributes a characteristic to some members of a particular class
predictive argument
a prediction defended with reasons
argument from authority
asserts a claim and then supports the claim by citing some presumed authority or witness who has said that the claim is true
causal argument
asserts or denies something is the cause of something else
statistical argument
argument resting on statistical evidence
argument from analogy
based on a comparison or similarity between two or more things
conditional statement
a logical statement containing two parts: hypothesis and conclusion.
hypothesis
an educated guess
Conclusion
Tells if your hypothesis was correct; supported or not supported
Theorem
A statement that is proved by reasoning deductively from already accepted statements.
counterexample
An example that proves a conjecture false
Proof
Numbered Logical argument that shows a statement is true
Law of Detachment
is p-->q is true, then p is true, and q is true
Law of Syllogism
if p-->q and q-->r are true, then p-->r is true
Converse
(noun) A statement that switches the hypothesis and conclusion
Inverse
a + (-a) = 0 = (-a) + a OR a * 1/a = 1 = 1/a * a; a cant be 0
Contrapositive
when the hypothesis and the conclusion of a converse of a conditional statement are negated
Negate
To make a statement have its opposite meaning. Usually adds or removes the word "not" to the statement.
Biconditional
Conditional statement where both the converse and inverse are true and uses the phrase "if and only if"
conjunction
Two statements joined by the word AND. Only true when both statements are true.
disjunction
Two statements joined by the word OR. Only false when both statements are false.
Truth Table
A table showing all possible combinations of truth and falsehood for a compound statement.