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(v) to stop something from moving through or along something else: A large rock blocked our way.
(n) a solid piece of wood, stone, ice, etc with straight sides: Have you ever seen someone make a swan out of a block of ice?
(adj) a brittle substance or object is hard and can easily break into pieces: The plastic had gone brittle from sitting in the sun.
(v) if something hard chips, or you chip it, a small piece of it breaks off: I've chipped a tooth.
(n) a small piece of something such as wood or glass, especially when it has broken off something: Be careful because there might be chips of glass on the floor.
(v) to make something smaller or firmer by pressing it, or to become smaller or firmer like this: Some places compact rubbish so it doesn't take up so much space.
(adj) smaller than most things of the same kind: Our flat is quite compact.
(v) make a solution of something in water stronger: You can concentrate the solution by heating it.
(v) to damage something so that a line or long narrow hole appears on its surface, but it does not break into pieces: Who cracked the window?
(n) a line on a surface where something is beginning to break apart: How long has that crack in the ceiling been there?
(n) a very small piece that falls off a dry food such as bread or cake: Don't get crumbs on the carpet.
(v) to hit or press something so hard that you damage it severely or destroy it, especially by making its shape flatter: Crush the can and put it in the recycling bin.
(n) a crowd of people all extremely close together in an area that is too small for them: There was quite a crush in the club last night.
(adj) a dense substance is very heavy in relation to its size: lead is a very dense metal.
(v) to make a liquid less strong by adding water or another liquid: I find orange juice a bit strong, so I usually dilute it.
(adj) a dilute liquid has been mixed with another liquid to make it less strong: Use dilute bleach to clean the table.
(v) if a solid substance dissolves in a liquid, it is mixed into the liquid so that it becomes included in it: Salt dissolves quite easily in water.
(n) cloth, especially when it is used for making things such as clothes or curtains: We need to choose the fabric we want for the curtains.
(adj) solid but not hard: When the cake feels firm, remove it from the oven.
(v) to come off a surface in small flat pieces: The paint on the door is beginning to flake.
(n) a small flat piece of something: The floor was covered in flakes of paint from the old walls.
(adj) easy to break or damage: Be careful with that ornament because it's very fragile.
(n) the physical force that makes it difficult for one surface to move over another: If you rub your hands together, friction makes them get warm.
(n) a very small individual piece of a substance such as sand, salt or sugar: Each grain of salt is really a tiny cube.
(n) the force that makes something fall to the ground: How do they measure gravity?
(v) to break something into very small pieces or powder, by using a machine or by crushing it between two hard surfaces: I often grind my own spices.
(adj) empty inside: I was surprised to find that the tree was hollow.
(n) a substance that can flow, has no fixed shape, and is not a solid or gas: Did you know that glass is actually a liquid?
(adj) in the form of a liquid: You have to be careful when you're handling liquid explosive.
(v) to put people or things into the same group, although they do not really belong together: You can't just lump all disabled people together like that.
(n) a solid piece of something that does not have a regular shape: I tripped over a lump of concrete.
(n) a natural substance in the earth, for example coal, salt, gold or diamonds: This area is very rich in minerals.
(v) to give something a particular shape or form: Mould the clay into the shape of a person.
(n) a shaped container into which you pour a liquid that then becomes solid in the shape of the container: Pour the jelly into the mould and then put it in the fridge.
(adj) opaque glass, liquid, etc is difficult to see through: We've had opaque glass put into the bathroom.
(v) to touch someone gently several times with a flat hand to show that you care about them or want to make them feel better: He patted me on the shoulder and told me not to worry.
(n) the action of gently touching someone or something several times with a flat hand: I felt a pat on my back and turned round.
(v) to put a large number of things on top of each other: Don't just pile your clothes on the bed.
(n) a number of things put on top of each other: Could you help me carry this pile of books?
(v) to rub the surface of something in order to make it shine: The maid polished the table and then cleaned the floor.
(n) a chemical substance that you rub onto an object to make it shine: Put some polish on your cloth and then rub, like this.
(v) to pull your nails along your skin, especially because you have an itch that makes you want to do this: You'll only make it worse if you scratch.
(v) to damage a surface by marking it with something sharp or rough: How did you scratch your violin?
(n) a thin mark on a surface: T here's a scratch on my new CD!
(v) to wash or clean something by rubbing it hard, especially with a brush: I've been scrubbing the floor all day.
(n) a thorough wash or clean: What your fingernails need is a good scrub.
(v) to break something noisily into many pieces by dropping or hitting it with a lot of force: You've smashed the glass on my favourite picture!
(n) a substance that is not a liquid or a gas: Water is a liquid, but ice is a solid.
(adj) a solid substance is firm and hard and is not a liquid or a gas: The concrete should be solid by now.
(n) a very small spot or mark: There isn't a speck of dust in the house.
(v) to damage something by pressing or crushing it and making it lose its normal shape: She sat on my glasses and squashed them!
(n) a situation in which there are too many people in a small space: It'll be a bit of a squash, but we can get five in the car.
(v) to press something firmly, especially with your hands: Squeeze the sponge to get all the water out.
(n) the action of squeezing something: She gave my hand a quick squeeze.
(v) to arrange things so that they stand one on top of another: The assistant was stacking boxes when I walked into the shop.
(n) a pile of things placed one on top of another: I can't believe you knocked over that stack of tins'
(adj) firm and difficult to bend: Take a stiff piece of card and cut a hole in it.
(v) to gently move your hand over skin, hair or fur: I was only trying to stroke the dog'
(n) a gentle movement of your hand across skin, hair or fur: I fell asleep while my mum was stroking my hair.
(v) to push something soft into a space or container: I stuffed a few things into a suitcase and set off.
(n) a variety of objects or things: What's all this stuff on your desk?
(n) a particular type of liquid, solid or gas: You're not allowed to take certain substances on a plane.
(adj) made from artificial materials or substances, not from natural ones: Nylon is a synthetic material.
(v) to pull something so that it separates into pieces or gets a hole in it, or to become damaged in this way: I've tom my T-shirt on the door handle.
(n) a hole in a piece of paper, cloth, etc where it has been torn: There's a big tear in my dress.
(n) the way something feels when you touch it: I love the texture of silk.
(adj) a transparent object or substance is clear or thin enough for you to see things through: Glass is transparent.