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Abstract Noun
A name to describe things that have no physical qualities: Freedom/ Love
Active Voice
A grammatical structure in which the subject is the actor of the sentence: The dog ate the bone.
Adjective
A word that can modify a noun or a pronoun and be used as a post modifier or a premodifier: gnarled / ragged / shiny
Sibilance
The repeated use of the S or Z sound
Dental Alliteration
The repeated use of D or T
Gutteral Alliteration
The repeated use of G
Adverb
A word that modifies verbs/ adverbs/ adjectives/ prepositions/ conjunctions
Allusion
To refer to something indirectly or metaphorically
Alternate rhyme
Lines of poetry where the rhyme is on every other line (ABAB)
Arched Rhyme
Lines of poetry which follow the pattern ABBA
Archaic Lexis/ Archaism
A word that is out of date/ old fashioned/ from an earlier era
Aspirants
Words that denote an audible breath eg. h or gh in 'sigh'
Assonance
Repeated vowel sounds in a line of poetry / sentence e.g snug as a bug in a rug
Asyndetic Listing
The omission of coordinating conjunctions in a list: apples, pears, sweets, toys.
Attitudes
The opinions expressed in a text
Auxiliary/ Modal verbs
Words that precede a verb, often to show a degree of certainty: WILL, MUST, SHOULD
Bilabials
Term to denote a sound create by two lips together : M, B
caesura
A mid line pause in poetry
Initial Caesura
A break in a line of poetry near the beginning: Crushed. Why do men not reck his rod?
Medial Caesura
A break in the middle of a line of poetry: After all that time: did she have to lie?
Clause
A group of words, with a verb which is structurally larger than a phrase
Collective Noun
A name that refers to a group of people, animals or things
Concrete / common noun
A name for everyday objects: pencil, car, door
Complex sentence
A sentence made up of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses
Coordinating Conjunction
A word that joins elements of a sentence that are of equal importance: and, but, or
Compound sentence
A sentence made up of at least two main clauses, joined by a coordinating conjunction: Michael likes poetry but Lucy loves prose.
Compound adjective
An adjective made up of two words joined by a hyphen: seaweed- covered rocks
Conceit
An extended// elaborate metaphor
Connotations
The implied meanings and associations attached to words
Content
What the text is about
Context
The things that are outside of the text which influenced its writing: politics of the time, when it was written, who wrote it etc
Rhyming couplet
Two lines that are next to each other that rhyme
Declarative Mood
A mood used to express a statement: It was a Monday morning.
Definite article
The word 'THE''
Deictic
Words that rely on context to be understood: Pass me that one, over there
Dependent or subordinate clauses
A group of words which add more information to the main clause in a complex sentence
Pejorative connotations
Negative associations created by words
Ameliorative connotations
Positive associations created by words
Taboo Lexis
Words which are offensive e.g swear words
Dysphemism
A word which exaggerates the negative: Reek instead of smell
euphemism
a mild, indirect, or vague term substituting for a harsh, blunt, or offensive term
Dialogue
Language interaction between two or more people
Double negative
A structure in which more than one negative is used: I haven't done nothing
Dynamic Verbs
A verb which expresses an action rather than a state : kicking /smiling
Stative Verbs
Verbs that expresses states of being or processes:: doubting/ contemplated
elision
n. the omission of a vowel, consonant, or syllable in pronunciation.
Ellipsis
The omission of part of a sentence, using ...
Enjambment
Lines of poetry that run on to the next line
End-Focus
A change in the structure of a sentence with the focus on the closing part
Foregrounding
The change in the structure of a sentence with the focus on the opening part
Exclamatory Mood
A mood that expresses strong emotions
Eye Rhyme
Lines of poetry that look like they should rhyme but the sound is not the same
Fillers
Words used in spoken language that express hesitations in speech - um, err
Form
The shape and structure of a poem/ text
Fricatives
The sound created when air escapes through a small passage in the mouth: F, V
hyperbole
an exaggerated statement, often used as a figure of speech
pentameter
n. poetic meter with five beats
Trimeter
Poetic meter with 3 beats ( 6 syllables)
Tetrameter
Poetic meter with 4 beats ( 8 syllables)
Imperative mood
A mood that expresses a command
Indefinite article
A, An
Independent main clause
A group of words which contain the main meaning of a sentence
Internal Rhyme
Where the rhyming sound is contained within a line of poetry
Interrogative mood
A mood that expresses a question
juxtaposition
the placing of one thing next to another, often to show a contrast
Lexical set
A group of words connected by similarities
Lexis
The term used to describe the vocabulary of a language
Litotes
A deliberate understatement
metaphor
n. poetic device of calling one thing another thing
simile
n. an expression that describes something by omparing it with something else, using the words 'as' or 'like'. SYN - Comparison.
Narrative mode
Either first, second or third person narrator
Nasals
Sounds created by an open nasal passage: M, N
Non-standard lexis
Language that does not conform with the standdard version used by society : wa gwan
Noun
A naming word
Octave
A stanza of eight lines
Sestet
A stanza of 6 lines
Sonnet
A poem made up of 14 lines
Italian// Petrarchan sonnet
A sonnet made up of an octave and a sestet
English/ Shakespearean sonnet
A stanza made up of three quatrains and a rhyming couplet
Onomatopoeia
The term used to denote words that imitate sounds
Orthography
The study of spelling
Oxymoron
A phrase made up of two contradictory words: joyful misery
Paralinguistics
Non-verbal communication using gestures, posture and facial expressions
Parallelism
The patterning of words, sounds or structures to create a sense of balance
Passive Voice
A grammatical structure where the subject and the object swap places: The bone was eaten by the dog
Pathetic Fallacy
A literary device where the environment reflects the emotions of the text
Personification
A literary device where non-human items are given human qualities: The trees danced in the breeze.
Zoomorphism
A device where a human is described like an animal
anthropomorphism
A device where animals are given human characteristics
phonology
n. the study of sounds of speech
Phrase
A group of words with no verb: the blue, wooden door
Plosives
Sounds which release a sudden burst of air: P, B, T, D
Preposition
A word which shows the relationships between a noun or a pronoun eg. on, under, across, at, in
Pronoun
A word that replaces a noun: He, She, I, They
First person pronoun
I
First person possessive pronoun
mine/ my
First person plural pronoun
We
First person plural possessive pronoun
Our
Second person pronoun
You
Second person possessive pronoun
Your/ Yours
Third person pronoun
He/ She/ It
Third person possessive pronoun
His/ Hers/ Its
Purpose
Why a text was written: To inform. entertain. persuade. advise etc
Honourific
Titles that denote status: Mr, Miss, Lord, Sir, Duke
Vocative
names or terms used to address people: sweetheart, little terror, my love, darling
Clipped vocative
A shortening of names, suggesting intimacy - Cathy instead of Catherine
Clipped words
Shortening of words: 'Fabulous' turned into 'Fab'
Reflexive Pronouns
pronouns that end in self - himself, herself, themselves
Negators
Words expressing a negative - no, not or nor
Comparative adjectives
adjectives that compare: bigger, quicker, colder, slower, easier
Superlative adjectives
Adjectives that express the most extreme version of soemthing: best, worst, coldest, hottest, most important, rudest
Fronted conjunctions
Sentences that start sentences: But he knew he was the only one.
Taboo Lexis
Words that are considered impolite to use, depending on the context: : slag, knob-head
Expletives
Swear words: shit
Politeness marker
Words showing politeness - please, thank you, sorry
Emotive marker
Non-standard lexical items that are expressions of emotional responses: Oh! Ah!
Oaths/ Blasphemy
Swear words/ expletives that use religious imagery: For God's sake, In God's name!
Antithesis/ Binary Opposition
The use opposing imagery in a text, which is not next to one another - themes of life/death /love and hate
Synaethesia
An image that metaphorically blends and confuses the senses: a loud shirt / wind oozing/ a noisy taste
metonymy
n. substitution of a word for another that it signifies eg. skirt for a woman ( 1950's slang) suits for businessmen,
Idiom
Phrases/cliches that are often used and metaphorical: It's raining cats and dogs
Foreshadowing
A reference to something that happens later in the text
End stopped lines
Where a line of poetry stops at the end, usually with a full stop.
chiasmus
A grammatical figure by which the order of words in one of two of parallel clauses is inverted in the other: : Do I love you because you’re beautiful or are you beautiful because I love you?
Paradox
It is a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth: I must be cruel to be kind
Anaphora
In writing or speech, the deliberate repetition of the first part of the sentence in order to achieve an artistic effect is known as Anaphora: I have a dream that one day...I have a dream that all the ...I have a dream.
Homophone
A homophone can be defined as a word that when pronounced seems similar to another word but has a different spelling and meaning such as bear and bare
Ambiguity
ambiguity is a word, phrase, or statement which contains more than one meaning
Portmanteau words
A literary device in which two or more words are joined together to coin a new word. A portmanteau word is formed by blending parts of two or more words but it always refers to a single concept: BLOG ( Web + Log) ELECTROCUTE ( Electricity + Execute)
Consonance
Consonance refers to repetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or phrase. This repetition often takes place in quick succession such as in pitter, patter. It is classified as a literary term used in both poetry as well as prose. For instance, the words chuckle, fickle, and kick are consonant with one and other due to the existence of common interior consonant sounds (/ck/).
Proper Noun
A name of a specific person or place or organisation that deserves a capital letter: Paul, Lincoln, Budapest, Adidas
Non-standard capitalisation
The act of giving a common noun a capital: Only Jam was my saviour that morning.
Slang
Language used by certain groups in societry that is not classed as standard English: That's wicked, man! He's well peng! She's proper tidy!
Volta
The turning point in a sonnet
Syntactical inversion
Where the normal syntax of a sentence is changed for dramatic effect: How very peculiar a thing said I!
Semantic shift
Where the meaning of a word changes over time: e.g 'Sick' now means 'great' but used to just mean 'ill'
Parenthesis
An aside/ additional information created by sectioning part of the sentence from the rest using bracket, dashes or two commas - e.g Joel was - as his children liked to describe him - the grumpiest man alive..