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Level 5

Simple Inheritance in Plants and Animals


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cystic fibrosis
A genetic disease that affects the lungs, digestive and reproductive systems. It is inherited through a recessive allele.
differentiated
Specialised for a particular function.
allele
A version of a particular gene.
DNA fingerprint
Pattern produced by analysing the DNA which can be used to identify a person.
asexual budding
A form of asexual reproduction where a complete new individual forms as a bud on the parent organism e.g. yeast, hydra.
genetic material
The DNA which carries the information for making a new cell or individual.
carrier
Individual who is heterozygous for a faulty allele that causes a genetic disease in the homozygous form.
genetic disorders
Diseases which are inherited.
meiosis
The two stage process of cell division which halves the number of chromosome number in daughter cells. It is involved in making the gametes for sexual reproduction.
mitosis
Asexual cellular division where two identical cells are formed.
ovum
Female sex cell.
polydactyly
A genetic condition inherited through a dominant allele which results in extra fingers and toes.
protein synthesis
The process by which proteins are made on the ribosomes based on information from the genes.
recessive
The characteristic that will show up in the offspring only if both of the alleles are inherited.
ribosomes
The site of protein synthesis in a cell.
sex chromosomes
The chromosomes which carry information about the sex of an individual.
stem cells
Undifferentiated cells with the potential to form a wide variety of different cell types.
therapeutic cloning
Cloning by transferring the nucleus of an adult cell to an empty egg to produce tissues or organs which can be used in medicine.