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Level 4

Nutrition, menu planning and costing


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protein
grows and repairs cells. Found in red meat, pulses, nuts.
LBV protein
Low Biological Value protein. Nuts, cereals, pulses.
HBV protein
High Biological Value protein. Meat, fish, dairy, soya.
fibre
helps food move through body and prevents constipation. Vegetables, wholemeal bread, beans.
water
keeps body at right temperature and helps digest food.
carbohydrate
provides body with energy. Bread, pasta, cerals
complex carbohydrate
long lasting energy. Bread, pasta, cereals.
simple carbohydrate
short bursts of energy. Cakes, jams, sugar, sweets.
fats
energy, keeping the body warm, protecting organs.
Saturated fat
Less healthy. Meat, butter, cheese.
Unsaturated fat
More healthy. Seeds, fish, vegetable oils.
Vitamin A
Eyesight. Found in fish, eggs, butter, oranges, dark green vegetables.
B Group Vitamins
Helps release energy from carbohydrates. Cereal, meats, fish.
Vitamin C
Fights disease and helps body absorb iron. Oranges, peppers, tomatoes, green vegetables and potatoes.
Vitamin D
Strong bones and teeth. Eggs and oily fish.
Iron
needed to make red blood cells. Red meat and green vegetables.
Anaemia
Disease from lack of iron.
Calcium
needed for strong bones. Milk, cheese, green vegetables, tofu.
Osteoporosis
Disease of the bones due to lack of calcium.
healthy diet
low in fat, sugar and salt. High in fibre. Varied.
eatwell plate
a way of showing how much of each type of food you should eat.
risks of unhealthy eating
obesity, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, some cancers.
vegetarians
don't eat meat or fish but eat animal products ( milk, eggs). They get protein from eggs, milk, nuts and pulses.
vegans
don't eat meat, fish or any animal products. They get protein from nuts and pulses.
coeliacs
can't eat a protein called gluten which is found in most grains (wheat,rye) such as bread, cakes, cereals, pasta.
nut allergies
people with nut allergies must avoid products with nuts or traces of nuts.
lactose
a sugar found in milk.
nutritionally balanced meals
contain a mixture of vegetables, complex carbohydrates and protein.
religious requirements
some religious people avoid certain foods. For example Jews don't eat pork or shellfish, Muslims don't eat pork, Hindus don't eat beef.
Planning a menu
means using a mixture of foods for nutrition, colour, texture and flavour, allowing for the type of catering outlet and the skill of the chef and the equipment available, and recognising the preferences of the customers at different times of the day or year.
Table d'hôte
a set menu with a limited choice of dishes for a fixed price.
à la carte
a full menu with many choices where each item is priced separately.
themed menus
focused on one event or cuisine. Christmas menu, Chinese New Year
portion size
the serving size for one customer for one meal.
portion control
working out what size portion to serve food and making sure each portion is the same size.
overheads
business costs like electricity, heating, wages and rent.
costing
working out how much a food product or dish costs to make, and what price to sell it for.
lactose intolerant
must avoid milk and dairy products.