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Health, safety & hygiene


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food poisoning
an illness caused by contaminated food
symptoms of food poisoning
nausea, diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, stomach pain
bacteria
are living things that have only one cell. Under a microscope, they look like balls, rods, or spirals. They are the simplest creatures considered alive.
bacteria grow best in
warm, moist conditions with food and time to multiply.
high-risk food
foods more likely to cause food poisoning. Usually high in protein - eggs, shellfish, meat, poultry.
low-risk foods
foods unlikely to cause food poisoning. Usually dry foods or high in fat, acidity or sugar - cereals, bread, jam, pickles.
salmonella
found in chicken and eggs
e coli
found in raw meat and raw vegetables.
listeria
found in soft cheese and meat.
staphylococcus aureus
found on human skin, and around the nose and mouth.
bacillus cereus
found in cooked rice.
Food Safety Act (1990)
is a law to protect customers and ensure the quality and safety of food.
Environmental Health Officers
ensure that catering establishments are safe, hygienic and in compliance with the law.
hygienic
conducive to maintaining health and preventing disease, especially by being clean; sanitary.
recommended core temperature when cooking food
75 degrees
danger zone
5 - 63 degrees
minimum temperature for hot-holding food
63 degrees
recommended temperature for chilled food (eg fridge)
5 degrees (or lower)
recommended temperature for frozen food
-18 degrees (or lower)
food contamination
harmful chemicals and microorganisms in food which can cause consumer illness
first in, first out
a food rotation system to ensure the oldest food is eaten/used first
red chopping board
raw meat
blue chopping board
raw fish
yellow chopping board
cooked meat
green chopping board
salad and fruit
brown chopping board
vegetables
white chopping board
bakery and dairy
use-by date
refers to safety. Food can be eaten up to the end of this date but not after even if it looks and smells fine.
best-before date
refers to quality rather than food safety. Foods with this date should be safe to eat after the date, but they may no longer be at their best.
pests
unwelcome guests in a kitchen. Rats, mice, flies, cockroaches.
Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA)
a law which protects employees and gives rules which employers must follow.
a warning sign
yellow triangle with a black symbol
a mandatory (must-do) sign
blue circle with a white symbol
a prohibition (don't-do) sign
red circle with a diagonal line through it and a black symbol
an emergency sign
green square or rectangle with a white symbol
a fire sign
a red square or rectangle with a white symbol
fire extinguisher
device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
fire blanket
a safety device designed to extinguish small, starting fires. It consists of a sheet of fire retardant material which is placed over a fire.
fire procedure
Sound the alarm; call fire services; turn off gas and electricity; try to put out fire if safe to do so; leave the building, closing all doors behind you; do not re-enter building.
fire drill
practice of what to do if there is a fire.
first aid
the first medical care a person gets when they're hurt.
burn
an injury caused by dry heat, such as a fire, oven or hot object.
scald
an injury caused by wet heat, such as boiling water, steam or hot oil.
risk assessment
identifying possibly hazards and thinking of ways to reduce or remove risks.
hazard
anything which could cause harm or danger. It should consider both food safety and personal safety.
HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
HSE Five-Point Plan
a structure for risk assessments: identify hazards; identify those at risk; identify ways to reduce or remove risk; write down findings and action points; review the risk assessment regularly.