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Topic 9 The European Renaissance

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Italian Renaissance
14th and 15th century intellectual and cultural movement in Europe that challenged medieval values and began the "modern age"
Niccolo Machiavelli
Author of The Prince, a realistic discussion of seizing and maintaining power
A focus on humanity as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavors
Northern Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe influenced by the Italians featuring a greater influence on religion
Johannes Gutenberg
Introduced movable type to western Europe in the 1400's; greatly expanded printed materials (i.e. the Bible)
Martin Luther
German Catholic monk who initiated the Protestant Reformation rejecting the power of the pope and Catholic doctrine
Anglican Church
Form of Protestantism founded by Henry VIII
John Calvin
French Protestant who stressed the doctrine of predestination; established Geneva as the center of his group
Catholic religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in education, politics and missionary work
Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; reformed and revived Catholic doctrine
Roman Catholic certificates which offered to reduce the remission of sins
The belief that God has preordained all events to come
Medici Family
Aristocratic ruling family of Florence, Italy; influential in European politics
Council of Trent
Meeting of Roman Catholic cardinals and bishops in the 1500's to reform church doctrine
Ninety-Five Theses
Formal statements by Martin Luther posted on the door of the Wittenberg Church attacking Catholic doctrine