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Topic 7 European Middle Ages


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Middle Ages
The period in western European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century.
Gothic
An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed areches and flying buttresses as external support on main walls
Manorialism
System of economic and political relations between lords and peasants (serfs) who exchanged labor for access to land
Serfs
Peasant agricultural laborers tied to manors
Three-field system
When fields were divided into three areas, two for spring and fall planting and one left unplanted each to increase fertility
Charles Martel
Carolingian monarch of the Franks; defeated the Muslims at Tours in 732
Charlemagne
Carolingian monarch who established a large empire in France and Germany in 800's
Feudalism
System of military obligations between lords to provide protection in exchange for military service
Vassals
Lesser lords who received land in exchange for military service to a lord
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized the monarchy in England
Magna Carta
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; extended citizens' rights and limited the monarchy
Parliament
Bodies representing privileged groups; reinforced the principle that monarchs should consult their vassals
Hundred Years War
Conflict between England and France (1337 - 1453) which brought an end to the Middle Age period
Pope Urban II
Called for the First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control
Scholasticism
Medieval philosophy based on the idea of using logic to solve theological problems (faith and reason)
Troubadours
Traveling poets who gave new value to the emotion of love in Western tradition
Guilds
Association of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security, limited membership, regulated apprenticeships and guaranteed workmanship
Black Death
Plague that struck Europe during the late Middle Ages reducing the population and affected social structure
Lay Investiture
a formal conferring of power to clergy usually with robes or other Christian symbols
Chivalry
Medieval code used by knights which included the ideals of courage, honor,and the protection of the weak
Inquistion
A Roman Catholic court for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy
Heresy
Belief contrary to orthodox religion
Secular
Not religious
vernacular
Common language; popular way of speaking
Saladin
The most famous Muslim leader of the 1100's pushed the Crusaders out of Jerusalem
Common Law
Laws based on judge's prior decisions