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Muslims who believed the caliph should be one who followed Muhammad's example; accepting the Umayyad rule
Muslims who believed the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammad; the party of Ali
group which rejected the luxurious life of the Umayyads, pursuing a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path
a title meaning "successor" or "deputy" of Muhammad; a Muslim leader
founder of Islam, born in Mecca, led the Arabs to monotheistic beliefs
A Semitic language originating in the Arabian Peninsula that since the 7th century ad has come to be the principal language of a wide area of the Middle East
Holiest city of Islam, located on the Arabian Peninsula in Saudi Arabia
the migration of Muhammad and his followers to Medina
pilgrimage to Mecca
Islamic system of laws regulating the family life, moral conduct and community life of Muslims
Islam's Holy Book containing the revelations of Muhammad
the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
A Muslim traveler and historian who wrote extensively about his journeys in the Islamic world
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Western Kingdoms of Africa
a group of people who nomads and herders who spread from West Africa across the continent to South and East Africa
Mali's first great leader who defeated Ghana and the cities of Kumbi and Walata
Muslim ruler of Mali who is best known for his pilgrimage to Mecca, bringing enough gold out of Mali to devalue the price in Europe and the Middle East
Refers to the trade primarily of gold and salt by caravans through the Sahara desert; also referred to as the Gold Roads
Indian Ocean Trade
refers to the ocean trade routes between the East African trade cities and the West Indian Coast
The Swahili language or Kiswahili is a Bantu language and the mother tongue of the Swahili people. It is spoken by various communities inhabiting the African Great Lakes region and other parts of Southeast Africa
the belief that natural objects, natural phenomena, and the universe itself possess souls.
the attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion.