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the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.
Indian political and spiritual leader and social reformer. He played a major part in India's struggle for home rule and was frequently imprisoned by the British for organizing acts of civil disobedience. He advocated passive resistance and hunger strikes as means of achieving reform.
the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics for much of the 20th century.
the prime minister of India from 1966-77 and 1980-84 and one of the most famous women in 20th century politics. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India's first prime minister.
Partition of India
the process of dividing the subcontinent along sectarian lines, which took place in 1947 as India gained its independence from the British Raj. The northern, predominantly Muslim sections of India became the nation of Pakistan, while the southern and majority Hindu section became the Republic of India.
the principle or advocacy of the political union of all the indigenous inhabitants of Africa.
Ghanaian statesman, prime minister (1957–60) and president (1960–66). He led demands for self-government in the 1950s, achieving Ghanaian independence in 1957.
a racist political policy in South Africa demanding segregation of the nation's white and non-white populations. During South African apartheid, more than three million black citizens were forced to move from their homes to segregated neighborhoods.
a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation.
Rwanda & Darfur
Locations in Africa where two modern genocide events took place with hundreds of thousands killed
location of a modern European genocide with over 100,000 Bosnian and Croatian killed by Serbian military
a Chinese revolutionary and statesman. He was the leader of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1992.
large public square in Beijing, China: site of pro-democracy demonstrations (1989) leading to violent government suppression
an association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration.
a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey.
A conflict between the Israelis and the Arabs in the Middle East. The United Nations established Israel, a nation under control of Jews, in Palestine in the late 1940s, in territory inhabited by Palestinian Arabs.