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Topic 23 World War II and the Holocaust


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Nazism
(or National Socialism; German: Nationalsozialismus) is a set of political beliefs associated with the Nazi Party of Germany. It started in the 1920s. The Party gained power in 1933, starting the Third Reich. They lasted in Germany until 1945, at the end of World War II.
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Emperor Hirohito
Emperor of Japan (1926-1989) who advocated the Japanese government's unconditional surrender that ended World War II (1945). In 1946 he renounced his divine status.
General Tojo
a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944.
Communism
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
Appeasement
A political policy of conceding to aggression by a warlike nation. Note: A classic example of appeasement is the Munich Pact of 1938, negotiated between Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler.
Munich Pact
An agreement between Britain and Germany in 1938, under which Germany was allowed to extend its territory into parts of Czechoslovakia in which German-speaking peoples lived.
Sudetenland
An area in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic, on the border with Germany. Allocated to Czechoslovakia after World War I, it became an object of Nazi expansionist policies and was ceded to Germany as a result of the Munich Agreement of September 1938.
Nazi-Soviet Non Agression Pact
A treaty made by Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 that opened the way for both nations to invade Poland.
Winston Churchill
An English political leader and author of the twentieth century; he became prime minister shortly after World War II began and served through the end of the war in Europe. Churchill symbolized the fierce determination of the British to resist conquest by the Germans under Adolf Hitler.
Franklin Roosevelt
often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war.
Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
WWII Allied Powers
the chief Allied Powers were Great Britain, France (except after German occupation), the Soviet Union, the United States, and China.
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan, which were allied before and during World War II.
Holocaust
the killing of millions of Jews and other people by the Nazis during World War II
El-Alamein
The Battle of El Alamein, fought in the deserts of North Africa, is seen as one of the decisive victories of World War II by the Allies.
Stalingrad
A major battle between German and Soviet troops in World War II. The battle was fought in the winter of 1942–1943 and ended with the surrender of an entire German army. Stalingrad is considered a major turning point of the war in favor of the Allies.
D-Day
the day (June 6, 1944) in World War II on which Allied forces invaded northern France by means of beach landings in Normandy.
Island Hopping
is the phrase given to the strategy employed by the United States to gain military bases and secure the many small islands in the Pacific.
Manhattan Project
was a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II.
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
On August 6, 1945, Hiroshima was almost completely destroyed by the first atomic bomb ever dropped on a populated area. Followed by the bombing of Nagasaki, on August 9, this show of Allied strength hastened the surrender of Japan in World War II.
Tehran Conference
At the Teheran Conference in November Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt for the first time. Britain and America agreed to open a second front against the Germans early in 1944 by invading northern France. Stalin, in turn, promised to enter the war against Japan as soon as Germany was defeated.
Yalta Conference
the first of the conferences in 1945 to try to plan out the future after the end of the war. It was attended by Stalin, Roosevelt and Stalin, although Roosevelt was already ill and died two months later.
Potsdam Conference
a conference held in Potsdam in the summer of 1945 where Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill drew up plans for the administration of Germany and Poland after World War II ended
United Nations
An international organization composed of most of the countries of the world. It was founded in 1945 to promote peace, security, and economic development.