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Topic 20 Imperialism

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a policy or practice by which a country increases its power by gaining control over other areas of the world
Social Darwinism
the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals; used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism
Berlin Conference
a meeting between European nations to create rules on how to peacefully divide Africa among them for colonization. The conference was convened by Portugal but led by Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of the newly united Germany.
Sphere of Influence
An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges
Economic Imperialism
An independent but liss developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments
indirect control
a management method for imperialism using local officials, limited self-rule and institutions with European styles but with local rules
direct control
a management method for Imperialism using foreign rulers, no self-rule and meant to assimilate the indigenous population
Open Door policy
The Open Door Policy was an American proposal to try and keep Chinese markets open for all and not allow any country to gain control over the region
Opium Wars
a war between Great Britain and China that began in 1839 as a conflict over the opium trade and ended in 1842 with the Chinese cession of Hong Kong to the British
Boxer Rebellion
a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.
Meiji Restoration
in Japanese history, the political revolution that brought about the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and returned control of the country to direct imperial rule under the emperor Meiji
Taiping Rebellion
a massive civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, against the ruling Manchu Qing dynasty.