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Topic 2 India, China and Persia


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Indus Valley
a river valley civilization that encompassed the area of modern-day Pakistan. Its mature period is known as the Harappan Civilization, existing from 2600 BC to 1900 BC
Harrapan
a village in Pakistan: site of successive cities of the Indus valley civilization
Indo-European
relating to the family of languages spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as northern India.
Aryans
people who migrated into the Indian subcontinent about 1500 BCE
Caste System
a system of rigid social stratification characterized by hereditary status and social barriers sanctioned by custom, law, or religion.
Monsoon
a seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and Southeast Asia bringing a wet then a dry season
Asoka
an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
Mauryan Empire
a dynasty (?321-?185 bc) that united most of the Indian subcontinent and presided over a great flowering of Indian civilization
Gupta Empire
the second ancient Indian empire which existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent.
Dynastic cycle
an important political theory in Chinese history. According to this theory, every dynasty gets a new ruler, unites China and gains the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
Heaven granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly
Yin and Yang
two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin), and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), whose interaction influences the destinies of creatures and things.
Filial Piety
the important virtue and primary duty of respect, obedience, and care for one's parents and elderly family members.
Shi Huangdi
the King of the state of Qin who conquered all other Warring States and united China in 221 BC
Cyrus the Great
founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes- the Medes and the Persians
Darius
expanded the Persian empire, organized a highly efficient administrative system, and invaded Greece, only to be defeated at the Battle of Marathon in 490
Royal Road
The Royal Road was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great
Zoroaster
an ancient Persian prophet who founded the first world religion
Satrap
the governor of a province in ancient Persia