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Topic 12 European Exploration and Discovery

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Age of Exploration
The Age of Discovery is a historical period of European global exploration that started in the early 15th century with the first Portuguese discoveries in the Atlantic archipelagos and Africa, as well as the discovery of the Americas by Spain in 1492
"God, Gold and Glory"
"God, glory and gold" was the phrase used by Spanish conquistadors who came to the New World. They came to claim the land in the name of the king, spread Christianity and find cities of Gold
Prince Henry of Portugal
prince of Portugal, noted for his patronage of Portuguese voyages of exploration of the W coast of Africa; established a Navigation school for training
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese navigator: discovered the sea route from Portugal around the continent of Africa to India.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain; he commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world
a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Hernando Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima
Montezuma II
Last Aztec emperor in Mexico (1502-1520). He was overthrown by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés.
Last independent Incan emperor (1532-1533), who defeated his half-brother Huáscar (1532) and briefly reunited the empire after years of civil war. He was captured by the Spaniards, convicted of plotting against Pizarro, and executed by garrote despite his agreement to a vast ransom.
Atlantic Slave Trade
the business or process of procuring, transporting, and selling slaves, especially black Africans to the New World prior to the mid-19th century.
Triangular Trade
used to refer to the trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that involved shipping goods from Britain to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves, these slaves being shipped to the West Indies and exchanged for sugar, rum, and other commodities, which were in turn shipped back to Britain.
Middle Passage
the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the Americas
occurs whenever there is a large-scale migration of any one or more groups of people to a colonial area.