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Topic 10 Absolute Monarchs


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Absolutism
Concept of government developed during the rise of the nation-state in western Europe during the 17th century
Divine Right
The idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch is God's representative on Earth.
War of Spanish Succession
A costly war fought to prevent France and Spain, the two greatest powers in Europe, from being united under French Bourbon rule
Thirty Years' War
A conflict over territory, religion and power for Europe; two phases, Hapsburg victories and Hapsburg defeats
Seven Years' War
Preceded by a switch of allies, this war involved all the great powers of Europe and also included the French and Indian war in America's colonies
Peace of Westphalia
Agreement to end the Thirty Years' War; ended religious wars in Europe, strengthen France, weakened Germany, Spain and Austria
Ivan the Terrible
First to claim the title of Czar, added land to Russia, developed code of law; during "bad period" executed thousands including his own son with his secret police
Restoration
Followed the rule of Oliver Cromwell in England and brought the monarchy back with the rule of Charles II
Oliver Cromwell
Led the Roundheads to the eventual execution of Charles I and defeat of the Cavaliers; established a commonwealth but eventually became a dictator
Habeas Corpus
gives prisoners the right to be brought before a judge and told the charges against the accused
Glorious Revolution
The overthrow of James II, Catholic, by William and Mary, Protestants; restored parliament and established a constitutional monarchy
Bill of Rights
A list of what monarchs can't do and what citizens can do
Philip II
Ruler of Spain; his rule was considered the Golden Age of Spain; launched the Spanish Armada against England and Elizabeth I
Louis XIV
Ruler of France; the "Sun King"; considered the ultimate absolute monarch
Elizabeth I
Ruler of England; defeated the Spanish Armada; daughter of Henry VIII; money problems led to clashes with Parliament
Peter the Great
Ruler of Russia; attempted to "westernized"; desired a warm-water port; modernized military
Fredrick the Great
Ruler of Prussia; believed extending territories was role of government; led Prussia into Seven Years' War
Maria Theresa
Ruled Austria; stopped Prussian aggression; led Austria in Seven Years' War