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Topic 01 Early Man and River Valley Civilizations


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nomad
n. one who travels the land with no fixed home
Neolithic Revolution
When man moved from hunting and gathering to agriculture (farming)
Natural Barrier
Geographic obstacles such as rivers, deserts or mountain ranges
Mesopotamian Civilization
a region of SW Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers: site of several ancient civilizations.
Fertile Crescent
the region in the Middle East which curves, like a quarter-moon shape, from the Persian Gulf, through modern-day southern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and northern Egypt.
Hammurabi's Code
a Babylonian legal code of the 18th century b.c. or earlier, instituted by Hammurabi and dealing with criminal and civil matters.
Monotheism
belief that there is only one God.
Polytheism
the belief in or worship of more than one god (many gods)
Sumerians
one of the earliest urban societies to emerge in the world, in Southern Mesopotamia more than 5000 years ago
Shang
Considered the first recorded dynasty ruling in China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries bc.
Indus Valley
a river valley civilization that encompassed the area of modern-day Pakistan. Its mature period is known as the Harappan Civilization, existing from 2600 BC to 1900 BC
Cuneiform
the wedge-shaped characters used in the first ancient writing system of Mesopotamia and Persia mainly impressed on clay tablets.
Phoenicians
The Phoenicians prospered from trade and manufacturing, called the carriers of civilization
Egyptians
Located on the Nile River and despite the succession of different political rules, these people kept their customs and traditions, most of which are still prevalent in daily life and social behavior today.
Pharaohs
the most important and powerful person in the Egyptian kingdom, Egyptians considered this leader to be half-man, half-god.
Hieroglyphics
associated with the Egyptians the writing system used pictographs and other symbols.