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identical
exactly the same, or very similar
identifiable
able to be recognized
identification
(ID) official papers or cards, such as your passport, that prove who you are
identify
to recognize and correctly name someone or something
identity
1) sb's * is their name or who they are 2) the qualities and attitudes that a person or group of people have, that make them different from other people
ideological
based on strong beliefs or ideas, especially political or economic ideas
ideology
a set of beliefs on which a political or economic system is based, or which strongly influence the way people behave
ignorance
lack of knowledge or information about sth
ignorant
not knowing facts or information that you ought to know
ignore
to deliberately pay no attention to sth that you have been told or that you know about
illegal
not allowed by the law [= unlawful]
illogical
not sensible or reasonable
illustrate
1) to make the meaning of sth clearer by giving examples 2) to be an example which shows that sth is true or that a fact exists
illustration
a picture in a book, article etc, especially one that helps you to understand it
illustrative
helping to explain the meaning of sth
image
the opinion people have of a person, organization, product etc, or the way a person, organization etc seems to be to the public
imagery
the use of words or pictures to describe ideas or actions in poems, books, films etc
immature
sb who is * behaves or thinks in a way that is typical of sb much younger - used to show disapproval [≠ mature; = childish]
immigrant
sb who enters another country to live there permanently
immigrate
to come into a country in order to live there permanently
immigration
the process of entering another country in order to live there permanently
impact
the effect or influence that an event, situation etc has on sb or sth
impact
to have an important or noticeable effect on sb or sth
implement
to take action or make changes that you have officially decided should happen
implement
a tool, especially one used for outdoor physical work
implicate
1) to show or suggest that sb is involved in a crime or dishonest act 2) (formal) if sth is *d in sth bad or harmful, it is shown to be its cause
implication
a possible future effect or result of an action, event, decision etc
implicit
1) suggested or understood without being stated directly [≠ explicit] 2) (formal) forming a central part of sth, but without being openly stated
imply
1) to suggest that sth is true, without saying this directly 2) if a fact, event etc *ies sth, it shows that it is likely to be true [= suggest]
impose
1) if sb in authority *s a rule, punishment, tax etc, they force people to accept it 2) to force sb to have the same ideas, beliefs etc as you
imposition
1) the introduction of sth such as a rule, punishment, tax etc 2) (formal) sth that sb expects or asks you to do for them, which is not convenient for you
imprecise
not clear or exact [≠ precise, exact]
inaccessible
difficult or impossible to reach, understand or afford [≠ accessible]
inaccuracy
1) a statement that is not completely correct 2) a lack of correctness
inaccurate
not completely correct [≠ accurate]
inadequacy
a feeling that you are not as good, clever, skilled etc as other people
inadequate
1) not good enough, big enough, skilled enough etc for a particular purpose 2) sb who feels * thinks other people are better, more skilful, more intelligent etc than they are
inappropriate
not suitable or right for a particular purpose or in a particular situation
incapable
not able to do sth
incapacitate
(formal) to make you too ill or weak to live and work normally
incentive
sth that encourages you to work harder, start a new activity etc
incident
an event, especially one that is unusual, important, or violent
incidence
(formal) the number of times sth happens, especially crime, disease etc
incidentally
used to add more information to what you have just said, or to introduce a new subject that you have just thought of [= by the way]
inclination
1) a feeling that makes you want to do sth 2) a tendency to think or behave in a particular way
incline
1) (formal) if a situation, fact etc *s you to do or think sth, it influences you towards a particular action or opinion 2) (formal) to think that a particular belief or opinion is most likely to be correct
incline
a slope
incoherent
not expressed or organized clearly, and therefore difficult to understand
incompatible
1) two people who are * have such different characters, beliefs etc that they cannot have a friendly relationship 2) two things that are * cannot exist or be accepted together
inconceivable
too strange or unusual to be thought real or possible
inconclusive
not leading to a clear decision or result
inconsistency
1) when sb keeps changing their behaviour, reactions etc so that other people become confused 2) a situation in which two statements are different and cannot both be true
inconsistent
1) two statements that are * cannot both be true [= contradictory] 2) not right according to a particular set of principles or standards
incorporate
to include sth as part of a group, system, plan etc
incorporated
used after the name of a company in the US to show that it has become a corporation
indefinite
1) an * action or period of time has no definite end arranged for it 2) not clear or exact [= vague]
indefinitely
1) for a period of time for which no definite end has been arranged 2) without giving clear or exact details
index
an alphabetical list of names, subjects etc at the back of a book, with the numbers of the pages where they can be found
index
1) if documents, information etc are *ed, an index is made for them 2) to arrange for the level of wages, pensions etc to increase or decrease according to the level of prices
indicate
1) to show that a particular situation exists, or that sth is likely to be true 2) to say or do sth to make your wishes, intentions etc clear
indication
a sign, remark, event etc that shows what is happening, what sb is thinking or feeling, or what is true
indicative
(technical) the form of a verb that is used to make statements. For example, in the sentences 'Penny passed her test', and 'Michael likes cake', the verbs 'passed' and 'like' are in the indicative.
indicative
be * of sth = to be a clear sign that a particular situation exists or that sth is likely to be true
indicator
1) sth that can be regarded as a sign of sth else 2) (BE) one of the lights on a car that flash to show which way the car is turning [= turn signal AE]
indiscretion
an action or remark that shows a lack of good judgment, especially one that is morally unacceptable
indistinct
an * sound, image, or memory cannot be seen, heard, or remembered clearly
individual
1) considered separately from other people or things in the same group 2) belonging to or intended for one person rather than a group
individual
a person, considered separately from the rest of the group or society that they live in
individualism
the belief that the rights and freedom of individual people are the most important rights in a society
individualist
sb who does things in their own way and has different opinions from most other people
individuality
the qualities that make sb or sth different from other things or people
individually
separately, not together in a group
induce
1) (formal) to persuade sb to do sth, especially sth that does not seem wise 2) (medical) to make a woman give birth to her baby, by giving her a special drug
induction
1) the introduction of sb into a new job, company, official position etc, or the ceremony at which this is done 2) (medical) the process of making a woman give birth to her baby by giving her a special drug
inevitability
the fact that sth is certain to happen, or sth that is certain to happen
inevitable
certain to happen and impossible to avoid
inevitably
used for saying that sth is certain to happen and cannot be avoided
infer
to form an opinion that sth is probably true because of information that you have
inference
sth that you think is true, based on information that you have
infinite
1) very great in amount or degree 2) without limits in space or time
infinitely
very much - used especially when comparing things
inflexible
1) unwilling to make even the slightest change in your attitudes, plans etc 2) * rules, arrangements etc are impossible to change
infrastructure
the basic systems and structures that a country or organization needs in order to work properly, for example roads, railways, banks etc
inherent
(formal) a quality that is * in sth is a natural part of it and cannot be separated from it
inhibit
to prevent sth from growing or developing well
inhibition
1) a feeling of shyness or embarrassment that stops you doing or saying what you really want 2) (technical) when sth is restricted or prevented from happening or developing
initial
happening at the beginning [= first]
initially
at the beginning
initiate
1) (formal) to arrange for sth important to start, such as an official process or a new plan 2) to tell sb about sth or show them how to do sth
initiation
1) the process of officially introducing sb into a club or group, or of introducing a young person to adult life, often with a special ceremony 2) the act of starting sth such as an official process, a new plan etc
initiative
1) the ability to make decisions and take action without waiting for sb to tell you what to do 2) an important new plan or process to achieve a particular aim or to solve a particular problem
initiator
sb who thinks of and starts a new plan or process
injure
to hurt yourself or sb else, for example in an accident or an attack
injured
having a wound or damage to part of your body
injury
1) a wound or damage to part of your body caused by an accident or attack 2) (law) damage to sb's feelings
innovate
to start to use new ideas, methods, or inventions
innovation
a new idea, method, or invention
innovative
an * idea or way of doing sth is new, different, and better than those that existed before
innovator
sb who introduces changes and new ideas
input
information that is put into a computer [≠ output]
input
to put information into a computer [≠ output]
insecure
not feeling at all confident about yourself, your abilities, or your relationships with people
insert
to put sth inside or into sth else
insertion
1) the act of putting sth inside sth else 2) sth that is added to the middle of a document or piece of writing
insight
1) a sudden clear understanding of sth or part of sth, especially a complicated situation or idea 2) the ability to understand and realize what people or situations are really like
insightful
able to understand or showing that you understand what a situation or person is really like [= perceptive]
insignificant
too small or unimportant to consider or worry about [= trivial]
inspect
to examine sth carefully in order to find out more about it or to find out what is wrong with it
inspection
1) an official visit to a building or organization to check that everything is satisfactory and that rules are being obeyed 2) a careful examination of sth to find out more about it or to check for anything wrong
inspector
an official whose job is to check that sth is satisfactory and that rules are being obeyed
instability
when a situation is not certain because there is the possibility of sudden change [≠ stability]
instance
an example of a particular kind of situation
instance
(formal) to give sth as an example
institute
an organization that has a particular purpose such as scientific or educational work, or the building where this organization is based
institution
1) a large organization that has a particular kind of work or purpose 2) an important system of organization in society that has existed for a long time
institutional
1) relating to an institution 2) * attitudes and behaviour have existed for a long time in an organization and have become accepted as normal even though they are bad
institutionalized
* attitudes and behaviour have existed for a long time in an organization and have become accepted as normal even though they are bad
instruct
1) to officially tell sb what to do 2) (formal) to teach sb sth, or show them how to do sth
instruction
1) a statement telling someone what they must do 2) (formal) teaching that you are given in a particular skill or subject
instructive
providing a lot of useful information
instructor
sb who teaches a sport or practical skill
insufficient
(formal) not enough, or not great enough
integral
forming a necessary part of sth
integrate
if two or more things *, or if you * them, they combine or work together in a way that makes sth more effective
integrated
an * system, institution etc combines many different groups, ideas, or parts in a way that works well
integration
1) the combining of two or more things so that they work together effectively 2) when people become part of a group or society and are accepted by them
integrity
1) the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right 2) (formal) the state of being united as one complete thing
intelligence
the ability to learn, understand, and think about things
intelligent
1) an * person has a high level of mental ability and is good at understanding ideas and thinking clearly 2) an * comment, question, conversation etc shows that you have thought about sth carefully and understand it well
intense
1) having a very strong effect or felt very strongly 2) * activity is very serious, uses a lot of effort, and often involves doing a great deal in a very short time
intensify
to increase in degree or strength, or to make sth do this
intensity
the quality of being felt very strongly or having a strong effect
intensive
involving a lot of activity, effort, or careful attention in a short period of time
interact
if people * with each other, they talk to each other, work together etc
interaction
1) a process by which two or more things affect each other 2) the activity of talking to other people, working together with them etc
interactive
an * computer program, television system etc allows you to communicate directly with it, and does things in reaction to your actions
intermediate
1) an * class, course etc is at a level of knowledge or skill that is between the basic level and the advanced level 2) an * stage in a process of development is between two other stages
internal
1) within a particular country [= domestic; ≠ external] 2) inside sth rather than outside
internalize
if you * a particular belief, attitude, behaviour etc, it becomes part of your character
interpret
1) to translate spoken words from one language into another 2) to believe that sth sb does or sth that happens has a particular meaning 3) to explain the meaning of sth
interpretation
the way in which sb explains or understands an event, information, sb's actions etc
interpretative
relating to, explaining, or understanding the meaning of sth
interpretive
interpretative
interval
the period of time between two events, activities etc
intervene
1) to become involved in an argument, fight, or other difficult situation in order to change what happens 2) to interrupt sb when they are speaking
intervening
time that passes between two events
intervention
the act of becoming involved in an argument, fight, or other difficult situation in order to change what happens
intrinsic
being part of the nature or character of sb or sth
invalidate
1) to make a document, ticket, claim etc no longer legally or officially acceptable 2) to show that sth such as a belief or explanation is wrong
invalidity
1) (formal) the state of being too ill, old, or injured to work 2) the state of being not legally or officially acceptable
invariable
1) always happening in the same way, at the same time etc 2) (technical) never changing
invariably
if sth * happens or is * true, it always happens or is true
invest
1) to buy shares, property, or goods because you hope that the value will increase and you can make a profit 2) if a government, business, or organization *s in sth, they spend a large amount of money to improve it or help it succeed
investigate
1) to try to find out the truth about or the cause of sth such as a crime, accident, or scientific problem 2) to try to find out more about sb's character, actions etc, because you think they may have been involved in a crime
investigation
an official attempt to find out the truth about or the causes of something such as a crime, accident, or scientific problem
investigative
work or activities that involve investigating sth
investigator
sb who investigates things, especially crimes
investment
1) the use of money to get a profit or to make a business activity successful, or the money that is used 2) sth that you buy or do because it will be useful later
investor
sb who gives money to a company, business, or bank in order to get a profit
invisible
1) sth that is invisible cannot be seen 2) not noticed, or not talked about
invoke
(formal) 1) if you * a law, rule etc, you say that you are doing sth because the law allows or forces you to 2) to make a particular idea, image, or feeling appear in people's minds by describing an event or situation, or by talking about a person
involve
1) if an activity or situation *s sth, that thing is part of it or a result of it 2) to include or affect sb or sth 3) to ask or allow sb to take part in sth
involvement
1) the act of taking part in an activity or event, or the way in which you take part in it [= participation] 2) sth that you take part in or spend time doing
irrational
not based on clear thought or reason [= unreasonable; ≠ rational, reasonable]
irrelevance
1) a lack of importance in a particular situation 2) sb or sth that is not important in a particular situation
irrelevant
not useful or not relating to a particular situation, and therefore not important
irreversible
* damage, change etc is so serious or so great that you cannot change sth back to how it was before
isolate
1) to separate one person, group, or thing from other people or things 2) if you * an idea, problem etc, you consider it separately from other things that are connected with it
isolated
1) an * building, village etc is far away from any others [= remote] 2) feeling alone and unable to meet or speak to other people
isolation
1) when one group, person, or thing is separate from others 2) when sb feels alone and unable to meet or speak to other people
isolationism
beliefs or actions that are based on the political principle that your country should not be involved in the affairs of other countries
issue
1) to officially make a statement, give an order, warning etc 2) if an organization or sb in an official position *s sth such as documents or equipment, they give these things to people who need them
item
1) a single thing, especially one thing in a list, group, or set of things 2) a single, usually short, piece of news in a newspaper or magazine, or on television