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economic
relating to trade, industry, and the management of money
economical
using money, time, goods etc carefully and without wasting any
economically
in a way that is related to systems of money, trade, or business
economics
the study of the way in which money and goods are produced and used
economist
sb who studies the way in which money and goods are produced and used and the systems of business and trade
economy
the system by which a country's money and goods are produced and used, or a country considered in this way
edition
the form that a book, newspaper, magazine etc is produced in
editor
the person who is in charge of a newspaper or magazine, or part of a newspaper or magazine, and decides what should be included in it
editorial
relating to the preparation of a newspaper, book, television programme etc for printing or broadcasting
editorial
a piece of writing in a newspaper that gives the editor's opinion about something, rather than reporting facts
element
one part or feature of a whole system, plan, piece of work etc, especially one that is basic or important
eliminate
to completely get rid of something that is unnecessary or unwanted
elimination
1) the removal or destruction of sth 2) the defeat of a team or player in a competition, so that they may no longer take part
emerge
1) to appear or come out from sw 2) if facts *, they become known after being hidden or secret
emergence
when sth begins to be known or noticed
emergent
in the early stages of existence or development
emerging
in an early state of development
emphasis
special attention or importance
emphasize
to say sth in a strong way
emphatic
expressing an opinion, idea etc in a clear, strong way to show its importance
empirical
based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas [≠ theoretical, hypothetical]
empiricism
the belief in basing your ideas on practical experience
enable
to make it possible for sb to do sth, or for sth to happen
enabling
(law) an * law is one that makes something possible or gives someone special legal powers
encounter
1) to experience sth, especially problems or opposition 2) (formal) to meet sb without planning to
encounter
an occasion when you meet sb, or do sth with sb you do not know
energetic
having or needing a lot of energy or determination
energy
the physical and mental strength that makes you able to do things
enforce
1) to make people obey a rule or law 2) to make sth happen or force sb to do sth
enforced
made to happen, especially by things you cannot control
enforcement
when people are made to obey a rule, law etc
enhance
to improve sth
enhanced
(written) improved or better
enormity
the great size, seriousness, or difficulty of a situation, problem, event etc
enormous
very big in size or in amount [= huge]
enormously
very or very much
ensure
to make certain that sth will happen properly [= make sure]
entity
(formal) sth that exists as a single and complete unit
environment
the people and things that are around you in your life, for example the buildings you use, the people you live or work with, and the general situation you are in
environmental
concerning or affecting the air, land, or water on Earth
environmentalist
sb who is concerned about protecting the environment
equate
to consider that two things are similar or connected
equation
the set of different facts, ideas, or people that all affect a situation and must be considered together
equip
to provide a person or place with the things that are needed for a particular kind of activity or work
equipment
the tools, machines, clothes etc that you need to do a particular job or activity
equivalent
having the same value, purpose, job etc as a person or thing of a different kind
equivalent
sth that has the same value, purpose, job etc as sth else
erode
if the weather erodes rock or soil, or if rock or soil erodes, its surface is gradually destroyed
erosion
the process by which rock or soil is gradually destroyed by wind, rain, or the sea
erroneous
(formal) * ideas or information are wrong and based on facts that are not correct
error
a mistake
establish
to start a company, organization, system, etc that is intended to exist or continue for a long time [= found]
established
already in use or existing for a long period of time
establishment
(formal) an organization or institution, especially a business, shop etc
estate
(law) all of sb's property and money, especially everything that is left after they die
estimate
a calculation of the value, size, amount etc of sth
estimate
to try to judge the value, size, speed, cost etc of sth, without calculating it exactly
estimation
a judgment or opinion about sb or sth
ethic
a general idea or belief that influences people's behaviour and attitudes
ethics
moral rules or principles of behaviour for deciding what is right and wrong:
ethical
relating to principles of what is right and wrong [= moral]
ethnic
relating to a particular race, nation, or tribe and their customs and traditions
ethnic
sb who comes from a group of people who are a different race, religion etc or who have a different background from most other people in that country
evaluate
to judge how good, useful, or successful something is [= assess]
evaluation
a judgment about how good, useful, or successful something is [= assessment]
eventual
happening at the end of a long period of time or after a lot of other things have happened
eventually
after a long time, or after a lot of things have happened
eventuality
(formal) sth that might happen, especially sth bad
evidence
facts or signs that show clearly that sth exists or is true
evident
easy to see, notice, or understand [= obvious, clear]
evidential
able to be used as evidence, or relating to evidence
evidently
1) used to say that sth is true because you can see that it is true (= clearly) 2) used to say that you have been told that sth is true (= apparently)
evolution
the scientific idea that plants and animals develop and change gradually over a long period of time
evolutionary
relating to the way in which plants and animals develop and change gradually over a long period of time
evolve
if an animal or plant *s, it changes gradually over a long period of time
exceed
(formal) 1) to be more than a particular number or amount 2) to go beyond what rules or laws say you are allowed to do
exclude
to deliberately not include something [≠ include]
excluding
not including - used especially when you are making a list or calculating a total
exclusion
when sb is not allowed to take part in sth or enter a place [≠ inclusion]
exclusive
available or belonging only to particular people, and not shared
exclusively
only
exhibit
to show sth in a public place so that people can go to see it [= show]
exhibit
sth, for example a painting, that is put in a public place so that people can go to see it
exhibition
a show of paintings, photographs, or other objects that people can go to see
expand
to become larger in size, number, or amount, or to make sth become larger [≠ contract]
expansion
when something increases in size, range, amount etc [= growth]
expansionism
when a country or group increases the amount of land or power that they have - used especially to show disapproval
expansive
1) very friendly and willing to talk a lot 2) very large in area, or using a lot of space
expert
sb who has a special skill or special knowledge of a subject, gained as a result of training or experience
expert
having a special skill or special knowledge of a subject [≠ inexpert]
expertise
special skills or knowledge in a particular subject, that you learn by experience or training
explicit
expressed in a way that is very clear and direct
exploit
to treat sb unfairly by asking them to do things for you, but giving them very little in return - used to show disapproval
exploitation
a situation in which you treat sb unfairly by asking them to do things for you, but give them very little in return - used to show disapproval
export
the business of selling and sending goods to other countries [≠ import]
export
to sell goods to another country [≠ import]
exporter
a person, company, or country that sells goods to another country [≠ importer]
expose
to show sth that is usually covered or hidden
exposed
1) not protected from the weather 2) not covered 3) not protected from attack [= vulnerable]
exposure
when sb is in a situation where they are not protected from sth dangerous or unpleasant
external
relating to the outside of sth or of a person's body [≠ internal]
externalize
to express inner feelings
extract
(formal) to remove an object from sw, especially with difficulty
extract
a short piece of writing, music etc taken from a particular book, piece of music etc
extraction
the process of removing or obtaining something from something else