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qualitative
(formal) relating to the quality or standard of something rather than the quantity
quotation
a sentence or phrase from a book, speech etc which you repeat in a speech or piece of writing because it is interesting or amusing [= quote]
quotation
a written statement of exactly how much money sth will cost
quote
1) to repeat exactly what someone else has said or written 2) to give a piece of information that is written down sw 3) cite
quote
a statement of how much it will probably cost to build or repair something [= estimate]
radical
1) a * change or difference is very big and important 2) * ideas are very new and different, and are against what most people think or believe
radical
sb who has new and different ideas, especially sb who wants complete social and political change
random
happening or chosen without any definite plan, aim, or pattern
at random
without any definite plan, aim, or pattern
range
1) a number of people or things that are all different, but are all of the same general type 2) the limits within which amounts, quantities, ages etc vary 3) a set of similar products made by a particular company or available in a particular shop
range
1) to include a variety of different things or people in addition to those mentioned 2) if prices, levels, temperatures etc range from one amount to another, they include both those amounts and anything in between
ratio
a relationship between two amounts, represented by a pair of numbers showing how much bigger one amount is than the other
rational
1) * thoughts, decisions etc are based on reasons rather than emotions 2) a * person is able to think calmly and sensibly
rationalism
(technical) the belief that your actions should be based on scientific thinking rather than emotions or religious beliefs
rationalize
1) if you * behaviour that is wrong, you invent an explanation for it so that it does not seem as bad 2) (BE) to make a business more effective by removing unnecessary workers, equipment etc
react
1) to behave in a particular way or show a particular emotion because of sth that has happened or been said 2) (technical) if a chemical substance *s, it changes when it is mixed with another chemical substance
reaction
sth that you feel or do because of sth that has happened or been said
reactionary
very strongly opposed to any social or political change - used to show disapproval
reactionary
sb who strongly opposes any social or political change - used to show disapproval
reactivate
to make sth start working again
reactive
1) reacting to events or situations rather than starting or doing new things yourself 2) (technical) a reactive substance changes when it is mixed with another substance
reactor
a nuclear reactor
readjust
1) to get used to a new situation, job, or way of life 2) to make a small change to something or to its position
reassess
to think about sth again carefully in order to decide whether to change your opinion or judgment about it [= reappraise]
reconstruct
1) to produce a complete description or copy of an event by collecting together pieces of information 2) to build sth again after it has been destroyed or damaged
reconstruction
1) the work that is done to repair the damage to a city, industry etc, especially after a war 2) a description or copy of an event or a place, which you produce by collecting information about it
recover
1) to get better after an illness, accident, shock etc 2) to return to a normal condition after a period of trouble or difficulty 3) to get back sth that was taken from you, lost, or almost destroyed
recovery
1) the process of getting better after an illness, injury etc 2) the process of returning to a normal condition after a period of trouble or difficulty
recreate
to make sth from the past exist again in a new form or be experienced again [= recapture]
redistribute
to give sth to each member of a group so that it is divided up in a different way from before
redistribution
the act of redistributing sth, especially money or land
refine
1) to improve a method, plan, system etc by gradually making slight changes to it 2) to make a substance purer using an industrial process
refined
1) a substance that is * has been made pure by an industrial process 2) sb who is * is polite and seems to be well-educated or to belong to a high social class - sometimes used humorously
refinement
1) an improvement, usually a small one, to sth 2) sth which is an improved version of an existing product, system etc 3) the process of improving sth
regime
1) a government, especially one that was not elected fairly or that you disapprove of for some other reason 2) a particular system - used especially when talking about a previous system, or one that has just been introduced
region
1) a large area of a country or of the world, usually without exact limits [= area] 2) a particular part of sb's body
regional
relating to a particular region or area
register
1) an official list of names of people, companies etc, or a book that has this list 2) (technical) the words, style, and grammar used by speakers and writers in a particular situation or in a particular type of writing 3) (technical) the range of musical notes that sb's voice or a musical instrument can reach
register
1) to put sb's or sth's name on an official list 2) (formal) to officially state your opinion about sth so that everyone knows what you think or feel
registration
1) the act of recording names and details on an official list 2) (AE) an official piece of paper containing details about a motor vehicle and the name of its owner
regulate
1) to control an activity or process, especially by rules 2) to make a machine or your body work at a particular speed, temperature etc
regulation
an official rule or order
regulator
an instrument for controlling the temperature, speed etc of sth
regulatory
(formal) a regulatory authority has the official power to control an activity and to make sure that it is done in a satisfactory way
reinforce
1) to give support to an opinion, idea, or feeling, and make it stronger 2) to make part of a building, structure, piece of clothing etc stronger
reinforcements
more soldiers, police etc who are sent to a battle, fight etc to make their group stronger:
reinvest
to use money you have earned from investments to buy additional investments
reject
to refuse to accept, believe in, or agree with sth [≠ accept]
rejection
the act of not accepting, believing in, or agreeing with sth [≠ acceptance]
relax
1) to rest or do sth that is enjoyable, especially after you have been working 2) to become quiet and calm after you have been upset or nervous, or to make sb do this 3) if you relax a part of your body or it *es, it becomes less stiff or less tight
relaxation
1) a way of resting and enjoying yourself 2) the process of making rules on the control of sth less strict
release
1) to let sb go free, after having kept them somewhere 2) to let news or official information be known and printed [= publish]
release
1) when sb is officially allowed to go free, after being kept somewhere 2) a new CD, video, film etc that is available to buy or see
relevant
directly relating to the subject or problem being discussed or considered
reliable
sb or sth that is reliable can be trusted or depended on [= dependable]
reliance
when sb or sth is dependent on sb or sth else [= dependence]
reliant
dependent on sb or sth
relocate
if a person or business *s, or if they are relocated, they move to a different place
reluctance
when sb is unwilling to do sth, or when they do sth slowly to show that they are not very willing
reluctant
slow and unwilling
rely
to trust or depend on sb or sth to do what you need or expect them to do
removable
easy to remove
removal
1) when sth is taken away from, out of, or off the place where it is 2) when you get rid of sth so that it does not exist any longer
remove
1) to take sth away from, out of, or off the place where it is 2) to get rid of sth so that it does not exist any longer
remove
(especially BE - formal) a distance or amount by which two things are separated
require
1) to need sth 2) if you are *d to do or have sth, a law or rule says you must do it or have it
requirement
1) sth that sb needs or asks for 2) sth that must be done because of a law or rule
reschedule
1) to arrange for sth to happen at a different time from the one that was previously planned 2) (technical) to arrange for a debt to be paid back later than was previously agreed
research
(formal) serious study of a subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas
research
to study a subject in detail, especially in order to discover new facts or test new ideas
reside
1) (formal) to live in a particular place 2) to be present in or consist of sth
residence
(formal) a house, especially a large or official one
resident
1) sb who lives or stays in a particular place 2) (AE) a doctor working at a hospital where he or she is being trained [= registrar BE]
resident
1) (formal) living in a place 2) living or working in a particular place or institution
residential
1) a residential part of a town consists of private houses, with no offices or factories 2) relating to homes rather than offices or businesses
resolution
1) a formal decision or statement agreed on by a group of people, especially after a vote 2) when sb solves a problem, argument, or difficult situation 3) a promise to yourself to do sth
resolve
1) to find a satisfactory way of dealing with a problem or difficulty [= solve] 2) (formal) to make a definite decision to do sth
resolve
(formal) strong determination to succeed in doing sth
resource
sth such as useful land, or minerals such as oil or coal, that exists in a country and can be used to increase its wealth
resources
1) all the money, property, skills etc that you have available to use when you need them 2) personal qualities, such as courage and determination, that you need to deal with a difficult situation
resource
to provide money or other resources for sth
resourceful
good at finding ways of dealing with practical problems
respond
to do sth as a reaction to sth that has been said or done [= react]
respondent
(formal) sb who answers questions, especially in a survey
response
sth that is done as a reaction to sth that has happened or been said
responsive
1) reacting quickly, in a positive way 2) eager to communicate with people, and to react to them in a positive way
restoration
1) when you repair sth such as an old building or a piece of furniture, so that it looks the same as when it was first built or made 2) the act of bringing back a law, tax, or system of government
restore
1) to make sth return to its former state or condition 2) to bring back a positive feeling that a person or a group of people felt before 3) to repair an old building, piece of furniture, or painting etc so that it is in its original condition
restored
feeling better and stronger
restrain
1) to stop sb from doing sth, often by using physical force 2) to control your own emotions or behaviour
restraint
1) calm sensible controlled behaviour, especially in a situation when it is difficult to stay calm 2) a rule or principle that limits what people can do 3) (formal) physical force that is used to hold sb back, especially because they are likely to be violent
restrict
1) to limit or control the size, amount, or range of sth 2) to limit sb's actions or movements
restricted
1) small or limited in size, area, or amount 2) limited or controlled, especially by laws or rules 3) limited in your movements or in what you are able to do
restriction
1) a rule or law that limits or controls what people can do 2) when you restrict the size, amount, or range of sth
restrictive
sth that is restrictive stops people doing what they want to do [= limiting]
restructure
to change the way in which sth such as a government, business, or system is organized
retain
1) (formal) to keep sth or continue to have sth 2) to store or keep sth inside sth else 3) to remember information
retainer
1) an amount of money paid to sb, especially a lawyer, so that they will continue to work for you in the future 2) (AE) a plastic and wire object that you wear in your mouth to make your teeth stay straight [= brace BE] 3) (BE) a reduced amount of rent that you pay for a room, flat etc when you are not there, so that it will still be available when you return
retention
1) (formal) the act of keeping sth 2) (technical) the ability or tendency of sth to hold liquid, heat etc within itself
retentive
a retentive memory or mind is able to hold facts and remember them
reveal
to make known sth that was previously secret or unknown [≠ conceal]
revealing
1) a remark or event that is * shows you sth interesting or surprising about a situation or sb's character 2) * clothes allow parts of your body to be seen which are usually kept covered
revelation
1) a surprising fact about sb or sth that was previously secret and is now made known 2) the act of suddenly making known a surprising fact that had previously been secret
revenue
1) money that a business or organization receives over a period of time, especially from selling goods or services 2) money that the government receives from tax
reversal
1) a change to an opposite arrangement, process, or way of doing sth 2) a failure or other problem that prevents you from being able to do what you want
reverse
1) to change sth, such as a decision, judgment, or process so that it is the opposite of what it was before 2) (especially BE) if a vehicle or its driver *s, they go backwards [= back up AE]
the reverse
the exact opposite of what has just been mentioned
in reverse
in the opposite way to normal or to the previous situation
reverse order
the opposite order to what is usual or to what has just been stated
reversible
1) a change that is * can be changed back to how it was before 2) a piece of clothing or material that is reversible can be worn with either side showing on the outside
revise
1) to change sth because of new information or ideas 2) (BE) to study facts again, in order to learn them before an examination [= review, study AE]
revision
1) the process of changing sth in order to improve it by correcting it or including new information or ideas 2) a piece of writing that has been improved and corrected 3) (BE) the work of studying facts again in order to learn them
revolution
1) a complete change in ways of thinking, methods of working etc 2) a time when people change a ruler or political system by using force or violence
revolutionary
completely new and different, especially in a way that leads to great improvements
revolutionary
sb who joins in or supports a political or social revolution
revolutionize
to completely change the way people do sth or think about sth
rigid
1) * methods, systems etc are very strict and difficult to change [≠ flexible] 2) sb who behaves in a * way is very unwilling to change their ideas or behaviour 3) stiff and not moving or bending
role
1) the way in which sb or sth is involved in an activity or situation, and how much influence they have on it 2) the character played by an actor in a play or film [= part]
route
1) a way from one place to another 2) a way between two places that buses, planes, ships etc regularly travel
route
to send sth somewhere using a particular route