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panel
a group of people with skills or specialist knowledge who have been chosen to give advice or opinions on a particular subject
paradigm
(technical) a model or example that shows how something works or is produced
paragraph
part of a piece of writing which starts on a new line and contains at least one sentence
parallel
a relationship or similarity between two things, especially things that exist or happen in different places or at different times
parallel
two lines, paths etc that are * to each other are the same distance apart along their whole length
parallel
(written) if one thing *s another, they happen at the same time or are similar, and seem to be related
parameter
a set of fixed limits that control the way that something should be done
participant
sb who is taking part in an activity or event
participate
(formal) to take part in an activity or event
participation
the act of taking part in an activity or event
participatory
(formal) a participatory way of organizing sth, making decisions etc is one that involves everyone who will be affected
partner
1) one of two people who are married, or who live together and have a sexual relationship 2) one of the owners of a business 3) sb you do a particular activity with, for example dancing or playing a game against two other people
partnership
the state of being a partner in business
passive
sb who is passive tends to accept things that happen to them or things that people say to them, without taking any action
the passive
(technical) the * form of a verb, for example 'was destroyed' in the sentence 'The building was destroyed during the war.'
perceive
1) (written) to understand or think of sth or sb in a particular way 2) (formal) to notice, see, or recognize sth
percentage
1) an amount expressed as if it is part of a total which is 100 2) a share of the profits
perception
1) the way you think about sth and your idea of what it is like 2) the way that you notice things with your senses of sight, hearing etc
period
1) a particular length of time with a beginning and an end 2) a particular time in someone's life or in history
periodic
happening a number of times, usually at regular times
periodical
a magazine, especially one about a serious or technical subject
persist
to continue to do sth, although this is difficult, or other people oppose it
persistence
1) determination to do sth even though it is difficult or other people oppose it 2) when sth continues to exist or happen, especially for longer than is usual or desirable
persistent
1) continuing to exist or happen, especially for longer than is usual or desirable 2) continuing to do sth, although this is difficult, or other people warn you not to do it
perspective
1) a way of thinking about sth, especially one which is influenced by the type of person you are or by your experiences 2) a sensible way of judging and comparing situations so that you do not imagine that sth is more serious than it really is
phase
one of the stages of a process of development or change
phase
to make sth happen gradually in a planned way
phenomenal
very great or impressive
phenomenon
sth that happens or exists in society, science, or nature, especially sth that is studied because it is difficult to understand
philosopher
sb who studies and develops ideas about the nature and meaning of existence, truth, good and evil etc
philosophical
1) relating to philosophy 2) calmly accepting a difficult or unpleasant situation which cannot be changed
philosophize
to talk about serious subjects in detail or for a long time
philosophy
1) the study of the nature and meaning of existence, truth, good and evil, etc 2) the views of a particular philosopher or group of philosophers
physical
1) related to sb's body rather than their mind or emotions 2) a * relationship involves sex rather than just friendship
physically
in relation to your body rather than your mind or emotions
plus
1) used to show that one number or amount is added to another [≠ minus] 2) and also
plus
(informal) sth that is an advantage
plus
1) used to talk about an advantage or good feature of a thing or situation [≠ minus] 2) used after a number to mean an amount which is more than that number
policy
1) a way of doing sth that has been officially agreed and chosen by a political party, business, or other organization 2) a contract with an insurance company, or an official written statement giving all the details of such a contract
portion
1) a part of sth larger, especially a part that is different from the other parts 2) an amount of food for one person, especially when served in a restaurant [= serving, helping]
pose
1) to exist in a way that may cause a problem, danger, difficulty etc 2) to sit or stand in a particular position in order to be photographed or painted, or to make someone do this
pose
the position in which sb stands or sits, especially in a painting, photograph etc
positive
1) if you are * about things, you are hopeful and confident, and think about what is good in a situation rather than what is bad [≠ negative] 2) good or useful
positively
1) used to emphasize that sth is true, especially when this seems surprising 2) in a way that shows you agree with sth or want it to succeed
potential
likely to develop into a particular type of person or thing in the future [= possible]
potential
1) the possibility that sth will develop in a particular way, or have a particular effect 2) if people or things have potential, they have a natural ability or quality that could develop to make them very good
potentially
sth that is potentially dangerous, useful etc is not dangerous etc now, but may become so in the future
practitioner
1) sb who works as a doctor or a lawyer 2) sb who regularly does a particular activity
precede
(formal) to happen or exist before sth or sb, or to come before sth else in a series
precedence
when sb or sth is considered to be more important than sb or sth else, and therefore comes first or must be dealt with first [= priority]
precedent
1) an action or official decision that can be used to give support to later actions or decisions 2) sth of the same type that has happened or existed before
preceding
(formal) happening or coming before the time, place, or part mentioned [= previous; ≠ following]
precise
1) * information, details etc are exact, clear, and correct [= exact] 2) used to emphasize that you are referring to an exact thing [= exact]
precisely
1) exactly and correctly [= exactly] 2) used to emphasize that a particular thing is completely true or correct
precision
the quality of being very exact or correct
precision
made or done in a very exact way
predict
to say that sth will happen, before it happens
predictable
if sth or sb is *, you know what will happen or what they will do - sometimes used to show disapproval
prediction
a statement about what you think is going to happen, or the act of making this statement
predominance
1) if there is a * of one type of person or thing in a group, there are more of that type than of any other type 2) sb or sth that has * has the most power or importance in a particular group or area
predominant
more powerful, more common, or more easily noticed than others
predominantly
mostly or mainly
predominate
1) (formal) if one type of person or thing *s in a group or area, there are more of this type than any other 2) to have the most importance or influence, or to be most easily noticed
preliminary
happening before sth that is more important, often in order to prepare for it
preliminary
1) sth that is said or done first, to introduce or prepare for sth else 2) one of the games in the first part of a competition, when it is decided who will go on to the main competition
presumably
used to say that you think sth is probably true
presume
1) to think that sth is true, although you are not certain [= assume] 2) (formal) to accept sth as being true and base sth else on it [= presuppose]
presumption
1) sth that you think is true because it is very likely 2) (law) the act of thinking sth is true, bad, or good until it is shown to not be true, bad, or good
previous
having happened or existed before the event, time, or thing that you are talking about now
previously
before now or before a particular time
primacy
(formal) if sb or sth has *, they are the best or most important person or thing
primarily
mainly
primary
1) most important [= main] 2) (especially BE) relating to the education of children between five and eleven years old (= elementary AE)
prime
1) most important [= main] 2) of the very best quality or kind
principal
most important [= main]
principally
mainly
principle
1) a moral rule or belief about what is right and wrong, that influences how you behave 2) the basic idea that a plan or system is based on
principled
1) (formal) sb who is * has strong opinions about what is morally right and wrong 2) based on clear and definite ideas
prior
existing or arranged before sth else or before the present situation [= previous]
prioritize
to put several things, problems etc in order of importance, so that you can deal with the most important ones first
priority
1) the thing that you think is most important and that needs attention before anything else 2) the right to be given attention first and before other people or things
procedural
(formal) connected with a procedure, especially in a law court
procedure
1) a way of doing sth, especially the correct or usual way 2) a medical treatment or operation
proceed
1) (formal) to continue to do sth that has already been planned or started 2) (formal) to continue
the proceeding
an event or a series of things that happen
proceeds
(formal) the money that is obtained from doing sth or selling sth
process
1) a series of actions that are done in order to achieve a particular result 2) a series of things that happen naturally and result in gradual change
process
1) to make food, materials, or goods ready to be used or sold, for example by preserving or improving them in some way 2) to deal with an official document, request etc in the usual way 3) to deal with information using a computer
processed
processed food has substances added to it before it is sold, in order to preserve it, improve its colour etc
professional
1) relating to a job that needs special education and training 2) showing that sb has been well trained and is good at their work
professionalism
the skill and high standards of behaviour expected of a professional person
professionally
1) as part of your work 2) in a way that shows high standards and good training
prohibit
1) to say that an action is illegal or not allowed [= ban, forbid] 2) (formal) to make sth impossible or prevent it from happening
prohibition
1) the act of saying that sth is illegal 2) an order stopping sth
prohibitive
1) * costs are so high that they prevent people from buying or doing sth 2) a * rule prevents people from doing things
project
1) a carefully planned piece of work to get information about sth, to build sth, to improve sth etc 2) a part of a school or college course that involves careful study of a particular subject over a period of time
project
1) to calculate what sth will be in the future, using the information you have now 2) to stick out beyond an edge or surface [= protrude]
projection
1) a statement or calculation about what sth will be in the future or was in the past, based on information available now 2) (formal) sth that sticks out from a surface
promote
1) to help sth to develop or increase 2) to give sb a better, more responsible job in a company [≠ demote] 3) to help sell a new product, film etc by offering it at a reduced price or by advertising it
promoter
1) sb who arranges and advertises concerts or sports events 2) sb who tries to persuade people to support or use sth
promotion
1) a move to a more important job or position in a company or organization 2) an activity intended to help sell a product, or the product that is being promoted
proportion
1) a part of a number or amount, considered in relation to the whole 2) the relationship between two things in size, amount, importance etc 3) the correct or most suitable relationship between the size, shape, or position of the different parts of sth
proportional
sth that is * to sth else is in the correct or most suitable relationship to it in size, amount, importance etc [≠ disproportionate]
proportionate
(formal) proportional
prospect
1) the possibility that sth will happen 2) a particular event which will probably or definitely happen in the future - used especially when you want to talk about how you feel about it
prospective
1) sb who is likely to do a particular thing or achieve a particular position 2) likely to happen
protocol
1) a system of rules about the correct way to behave on an official occasion 2) (formal) an international agreement between two or more countries
psychological
1) relating to the way that your mind works and the way that this affects your behaviour 2) relating to what is in sb's mind rather than what is real
psychologist
sb who is trained in psychology
psychology
1) the study of the mind and how it influences people's behaviour 2) the mental processes involved in believing in sth or doing a certain activity
publication
1) the process of printing a book, magazine etc and offering it for sale 2) a book, magazine etc
publish
1) to arrange for a book, magazine etc to be written, printed, and sold 2) if a newspaper or magazine publishes a letter, article etc, it prints it for people to read
publisher
a person or company whose business is to arrange the writing, production, and sale of books, newspapers etc
publishing
the business of producing books and magazines
purchase
(formal) to buy sth
purchase
(formal) sth you buy, or the act of buying it
pursue
to continue doing an activity or trying to achieve sth over a long period of time
pursuit
1) when sb tries to get, achieve, or find sth in a determined way 2) when sb chases or follows sb else