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Base units
The units that make up the SI system (e.g. the metre, the kilogram, the second, the ampere).
Beta radiation
Beta(-) particles are fast moving electrons emitted by unstable neutron-rich nuclei: B(+) particles are fast moving positrons emitted by unstable proton-rich nuclei.
Braking distance
The distance travelled by a vehicle in the time taken to stop it.
Breaking stress
Tensile stress needed to break a solid material.
Brittle
Snaps without stretching or bending when subject to stress.
Centre of mass
The point on a body through which a single force has no turning effect.
Charge carriers
Charged particles that move through a substance when a pd is applied across it.
Kirchhoff's 1st law
1. The current passing through two or more components in series is the same though each component. 2. At a junction, the total current in = the total current out.
Kirchhoff's 2nd law
For two or more components in series, the total pd across all the components is equal to the sum of the pd's across each component.
Coherent
Refers to two sources which emit waves with a constant phase difference, wavelength and frequency.
Conservation rules
Conservation of energy, charge, baryon number and lepton number applies to all particle interactions. Conservation of strangeness applies to strong interactions only.
Couple
Pair of equal and opposite forces acting on a body but not along the same line.
Critical angle
The angle of incidence of a light ray must exceed this angle for total internal reflection to occur.
Critical temperature
Temperature at and below which a material has zero resistance or becomes a superconductor.
Cycle
Interval for a vibrating particle (or a wave) from a certain displacement and velocity to the next time the particle (or the next particle) that has the same displacement velocity.