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a mental or visual picture of countryside scenery, which is difficult to define, as rural areas are constantly changing and vary from place to place
areas of open land retained round a city or town over which there are wide-ranging planning restrictions on development
the process of population decentralisation as people move from large urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas
the decrease in population of rural areas, whether by out-migration or by falling birth rates as young people move away
a village designated as being one to develop in terms of the goods and services available to its own population and the population of the surrounding area
the increasing concentration of poverty in urban areas in developing countries due to high levels of rural-urban migration
Urbanisation of poverty
a major change in the form and growth of settlements due to significant technological advance
the process whereby an increasing proportion of the population in a geographical area lives in urban settlements
the absolute increase in physical size and total population of urban areas
it compromises the stages of urban change from the growth of a city to counterurbanisation through to reurbanisation
The cycle of urbanisation
the outward growth of towns and cities to engulf surrounding villages and rural areas
it occurs after a clear period of decline in a city’s population, begins to increase again
a mapping exercise by local government which decides how land should be used in the various parts of a town or city
Land use zoning
the process whereby impulses for economic growth are self-reinforcing, resulting in an upward spiral of economic development
a process in which wealthier people move into and renovate run-down housing in a neglected area.
the relative ease at which a place can be reached from other locations
a city that is judged to be an important nodal point in the global economic system
a region of an urban area, circular in shape, surrounding the CBD that has common land use/socio-economic characteristics.
the area just beyond the CBD, characterised by a mixture of residential, industrial and commercial land use, tending towards deterioration and blight.
Zone in transition (twilight zone)
a section of an urban area in the shape of a wedge, beginning at the edge of the CBD and widening to the periphery
decreasing accessibility as you move out from the centre of an urban area, with corresponding declining land values, allowing an ordering of land uses related to rent affordability
the rate at which population density and/or the intensity of land use falls off with increasing distance from the centre of the city
Urban density gradient
the long-term absolute decline of employment in manufacturing
a city whose economy is dominated by services and new high-tech industries
it identifies the problems encountered by manufacturing firms in congested cities
Constrained location theory
the boundary zone where rural and urban land uses meet. An area of transition from agricultural land use to urban land use
the complex pattern of different residential areas within a city reflecting variations in socio-economic status that are mainly attribute to income, but also influenced by ethnicity and age.
run-down areas of a city characterised by sub-standard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security
a Brazilian term for informal shanty-type settlements involving the illegal occupation of land by squatters
partnerships between communities and local government whereby local government frequently supplies building materials and the community supplies the labour
Self-help housing initiative
it sums up all the factors that affect a person’s general well-being and happiness
Quality of life
when ‘an individual’s well-being falls below a level generally regarded as a reasonable minimum for Britain today.’
the process whereby certain groups are pushed to the margins of society and prevented from participation fully by virtue of the low poverty, low education or inadequate life-skills.