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Frequency Theory
In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
Gate-Control Theory
Theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows the to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve
Hue
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
Inner Ear
The part of the ear containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Intensity
The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude.
Iris
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Kinesthesis
The system for sensing the positions and movement of individual body parts.
Lens
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina.
Middle Ear
The chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window.
Nearsightedness
A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because the lens focuses the image of distant objects in front of the retina.
Opponent-Process Theory
The theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, black-white) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red
Optic Nerve
The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
Parallel Processing
The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) process
Perception
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Pitch
A tone’s highness or lowness; depends on frequency.