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Collective Unconscious
Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.
Collectivism
Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.
Defense Mechanisms
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Displacement
Defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
Ego
The largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality. It operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s de
Empirically derived test
A test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
Fixation
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved.
Free Association
In psychoanalysis a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Id
Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate grat
Identification
The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parent’s values into their developing superegos
Individualism
Giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals, and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
MMPI
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still consider its most appropriate use). This test is now used for many
Oedipus complex
According to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
Preconscious
Information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness
Personality
An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking