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Level 1

Chapter 1: Anthropology Opens a Window to the Worl


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Anthropology
Comes from Greek words 'anthropos' (man - human) & 'logia' (logos - word, reason) => The study (science) of human beings or the study of what it is to be human
Holistic View
The view that any aspect of life is entangled with every other aspect; Encompassing past, present, and future; biology, society, language and culture. Thus, to really understand things, you have to take all aspects of culture or society into account
Comparative Approach
Comparing examples of different ways of living (cultures); Value cultural relativism and critiques ethnocentrism
Subfields of Anthropology
Cutural/ Social Anthropology, Linguistics Anthropology, Physical/ biological Anthropology & Archaeology
Cultural/ Social Anthropology
The study of living people and societies and their cultural ways; Method: Participant observation during fieldwork (1 year or more); ethnography
Fieldwork
The term anthropologists use for onlocation research.
Ethnography
Description of a culture, refers to both the process of doing fieldwork and the product produced (Eg. Books, articles..)
Linguistic Anthropology
The study of language and linguistic diversity in time, space, and society; Developed out of the practical need of anthropologists to learn and document unstudied languages, often with no writing systems
Sociolinguistics
Languages use in social context. Studies how language is influenced by other aspects of culture, and how it influences culture
Physical/ Biological Anthropology
The study of humans as biological organisms
Paleoanthropology
The anthropological study of biological changes through time (evolution) to understand the origins and predecessors of the present human species.
Primatology
The study of living and fossil primates.
Forensic Anthropology
The identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.
Archaeology
The study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data.
Participant Observation
In ethnography, the technique of learning a peoples culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time.
Ethnocentrism
The belief that the ways of one's own culture are the only proper ones.
Cultural Relativism
Views that cultures and practices are usually best understood in their own context, in their own terms, from the point of view of the people of that culture and the circumstances they are in