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The requirement, imposed by law or administrative regulation, that an organization (business firm, government agency, labor union, school, or college) take positive steps to increase the number or proportion of women, blacks, or other minorities in its membership.
equality of opportunity
A view that it is wrong to use race or sex either to discriminate against or give preferential treatment to blacks or women.
The authority of a government to safeguard and promote public order, safety, and morals.
Using race or sex to give preferential treatment to certain people.
The doctrine, established in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), in which the Supreme Court ruled that a state could provide “separate but equal” facilities for blacks.
The standard by which the Supreme Court judges classifications based on race. To be accepted, such a classification must be closely related to a “compelling” public purpose.
Classifications of people on the basis of their race and ethnicity. The courts have ruled that laws classifying people on these grounds will be subject to “strict scrutiny.”