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Comparing one thing to another that is really not related, in order to make one thing look more or less desirable than it really is.
When only two choices are presented yet more exist, or a spectrum of possible choices exists between two extremes. This is usually characterized by “this or that” language.
Drawing a conclusion based on a small sample size, rather than looking at statistics that are much more in line with the typical or average situation.
Refining your claim simply to avoid counter evidence and then act as if your revised claim is the same as the original.
HAVING YOUR CAKE
Making an argument, or responding to one, in such a way that it does not make it at all clear what your position is. This puts you in a position to back out of your claim at any time and go in a new direction without penalty, claiming that you were “right” all along.
Comparing a realistic solution with an idealized one, and dismissing or even discounting the realistic solution as a result of comparing to a “perfect world” or impossible standard. Ignoring the fact that improvements are often good enough reason.
When the conclusion does not follow from the premises. In more informal reasoning, it can be when what is presented as evidence or reason is irrelevant or adds very little support to the conclusion.
POISONING THE WELL
To commit a preemptive ad hominem attack against an opponent. That is, to prime the audience with adverse information about the opponent from the start, in an attempt to make your claim more acceptable, or discount the credibility of your opponent’s claim.
Offering false or inauthentic excuses for our claim because we know the real reasons are much less persuasive or more embarrassing to share, or more harsh than the manufactured ones given.
Attempting the redirect the argument to another issue. This is a deliberate diversion of attention with the intention of trying to abandon the original argument.
STYLE OVER SUBSTANCE
When the arguer embellishes the argument with compelling language or rhetoric, and/or visual aesthetics.
TWO WRONGS MAKE A RIGHT
When a person attempts to justify an action against another person because the other person did take or would take the same action against him or her.