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List 2


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APPEAL TO PITY
The attempt to distract from the truth of the conclusion by the use of pity.
APPEAL TO POPULARITY
Using the popularity of a premise or proposition as evidence for its truthfulness.
ANONYMOUS AUTHORITY
When an unspecified source is used as evidence for the claim. This is commonly indicated by phrases such as “they say that…,” “it has been said that…,” etc.
LOADED LANGUAGE
Substituting facts and evidence with words that stir up emotion, with the attempt to manipulate others into accepting the truth of the argument.
ARGUMENT FROM HEARSAY
Presenting the testimony of a source that is not an eyewitness to the event in question. It has been conclusively demonstrated that with each passing of information the message content changes.
ARGUMENT FROM IGNORANCE
The assumption of a conclusion or fact based primarily on lack of evidence to the contrary. Usually best described by, “absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.”
BEGGING THE QUESTION or CIRCULUR REASONING
Any form of argument where the conclusion is assumed in one of the premises.
BLIND AUTHORITY
Asserting that a proposition is true solely on the authority making the claim while extreme cases also ignore any counter evidence no matter how strong.
CHERRY PICKING
When only select evidence is presented in order to persuade the audience to accept a position, and evidence that would go against the position is withheld.
SCAPEGOATING
Unfairly blaming an unpopular person or group of people for a problem.
POST HOC
Assuming that just because there is a correlation between two events, there is also a causal relationship