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Attacking the person’s self-confidence in place of the argument or the evidence.
AD HOC RESCUE
Very often we desperately want to be right and hold on to certain beliefs, despite any evidence presented to the contrary. As a result, we begin to make up excuses as to why our belief could still by true, and is still true, despite the fact that we have no real evidence for what we are making up.
Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself or suggesting that the person who is making the argument is biased and therefore the argument is invalid.
Claiming that the argument is flawed by pointing out that the one making the argument is not acting consistently with the claims of the argument.
AFFIRMING THE DISJUNCT
Making the false assumption that when presented with an either/or possibility, that if one of the options is true that the other one must be false.
APPEAL TO AUTHORITY
Using an authority as evidence in your argument when the authority is not really an authority on the facts relevant to the argument.
APPEAL TO CELEBRITY
Accepting a claim of a celebrity based on his or her celebrity status, not on the strength of the argument.
APPEAL TO COMMON BELIEF
When the claim that most or many people in general accept a belief as true is presented as evidence for the claim. Accepting another person’s belief, or many people’s beliefs, without demanding evidence as to why that person accepts the belief, is lazy thinking and a dangerous way to accept information.
APPEAL TO COMMON FOLK
In place of evidence, attempting to establish a connection to the audience based on being a “regular person” just like each of them.
APPEAL TO DESPERATION
Arguing that your conclusion, solution, or proposition is right based on the fact that something must be done, and your solution is “something.”
An analogy that is used to prove or disprove an argument, but the analogy is too dissimilar to be effective, that is, it is unlike the argument more than it is like the argument.
Substituting a person’s actual position or argument with a distorted, exaggerated, or misrepresented version of the position of the argument.