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enthalpy, H
the heat content that is stored in a chemical system
(standard) enthalpy change of combustion
the enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard condition, all reactants and products being in their standard states.
(standard) enthalpy change of formation
the enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound in its standard state is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions.
(standard) enthalpy change of reaction
the enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed the chemical equation under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states
enthalpy cycle
a diagram showing alternative routes between reactants and products that allows the indirect deternimation of an enthalpy change from other known enthalpy changes using Hess' law.
enthalpy profile diagram
a diagram for a reaction to compare the enthalpy of the reactants with the enthalpy of the products.
esterification
the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water.
exothermic reaction
a reation in which the enthalpy of the products is smaller than the enthalpy of the reactants, resulting in heat loss to the surroundings (Delta H -ve)
fractional distillation
the seperation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ by boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.
fragmentation
the process in mass spectrometry that causes a positive ion to split into pieces, one of which is a positive fragment ion.
functional group
the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
general formula
the simplest algebraic formula for a member of a homologous series.
giant covalent lattice
a three dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds
giant ionic lattice
a three dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, bonded together by strong ionic bonds
giant metallic lattice
a three dimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds
greenhouse effect
the process in which the adsorption and subsequent emission of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases warms the lower atmosphere and the planet's surface
group
A vertical column in the Periodic Table. Elements in a group have similar chemical properties and their atoms have the same number of outer-shell electrons.
Hess' law
if a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route.
heterogeneous catalysis
a reaction in which the catalyst has a different physical state from the reactants; frequently, reactants are gases whilst the catalyst is solid.
heterolytic fission
the breaking of a covalent bond with both the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+ve ion) and an anion (-ve ion)
homogeneous catalysis
a reaction in which the catalyst and reactants are in the same physical state, which is most frequently the aqueous or gaseous state
homologous series
a series of organic compounds with the same functional group, but with each successive member differing by CH2
homolytic fission
the breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.
hydrated
crystalline and containing water molecules
Hydrocarbons
Organic compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.