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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy.
Cation
A positively charged ion.
cis-trans isomerism
a special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen on each C of a C=C double bond: the cis isomer (Z isomer) has the H atoms on each carbon on the same side; the tra
compound
a substance formed from two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio, usually shown by a chemical formula.
concentration
the amount of solute, in mol, per 1 dm^3 of solution.
coordinate bond
a shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only; also called a dative covalent bond.
covalent bond
a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
cracking
the breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes and alkenes.
curly arrow
a symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
dative covalent bond
a shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only; also called a coordinate bond
dehydration
an elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.
delocalised electrons
electrons that are shared between more than two atoms.
displacement reaction
a reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from an aqueous solution of the latter's ions.
displayed formula
a formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
disproportionation
the oxidation and reduction of the same element in a redox reaction
dynamic equilibrium
the equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.
E/Z isomerism
a type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attatched to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C double bond.
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
electronegativity
a measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
electron shielding
the repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer shell electrons.
electrophile
an atom (or group of atoms) that is attacted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
electrophilic addition
a type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
elimination reaction
the removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
empirical formula
the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
endothermic reaction
a reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants, resulting in heat being taken in from the surroundings (Delta H +ve)