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Prevention and Punishment

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Structuralists (crime prevention)
Believe the only way to reduce or prevent crime is to stop the inequalities is to stop the inequalities in wealth and income. Marxists, left realists are structuralists
Individualists /Interventionists
Argue some groups are more likely to commit crime than others. They believe we need to stop crime in 'criminal types' e..g targeting poor children as they believe the poor are more criminal.
Situationalists (Crime Prevention)
To prevent crime these believe physical changes like CCTV cameras, gated communities, street lights can prevent crime. RIGHT REALISTS like this
Situationalist Criticism
Evidence suggests community development DOESNT REDUCE CRIME and people can just move in less protected areas where they can get away with crime
Formal Social Control
This includes police and the Parliament these particular agents are responsible for enforcing the law
Informal Social Control
These in include the family, education, religion and the media. All these channels help reinforce a general sense of what behaviour is considered acceptable
Functionalists on Punishment
They argue punishment keeps society going. And if crimes went unpunished the result would be anarchy and society would collapse.
Public Punishment
Durkheim (functionalist) believe this was good for society as it created unity as people came together to condemn the criminal- in other words public hanging was good for society
Marxists on Punishment
These believe punishment serves the needs of capitalism by keeping the workers under control. And they believe police are used heavily in poor areas to enforce social control whereas rich areas don't face such scrutinising
Individualists on punishment
These see prison as a deterrent and the fact that it exists should put people off committing crimes
Localised Crime Prevention
Postmodernists point out that crime prevention is becoming more private. i.e. private security is used to control shopping centres
Sharia Courts
Postmodernists use this as an example to show how crime prevention is more private and people are relying on localised forms. Muslim communities use these to resolve disputes