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Heidensohn (a feminist)
Argues gender socialisation prompts men to be more aggressive and are more likely to commit violent crimes
Abbott and Wallance
Believe women are more closely watched by their families and given less freedom outside the home, reducing their opportunities for crime
Sexism against men
There are unfair stereotypes of men as criminal and violent which means many female criminals goes unchecked as they arent suspected as much as men
Did a self report survey which unearthed alot more female crime than official statistics showed. HOWEVER she did include more trivial petty crimes than official statistics do
Argues that "Bedroom Culture" means girls spend most of their time in magazines or round friends houses socialising. Girls are more individualistic and parents like to keep them closely watched
Suggests female identities are becoming more male and that why they are committing more crimes (even though less than men)
First proposed then chivalry thesis which suggests women are seen as less guilty by the male dominated justice system.
Heidensohn argues against chivalry theory by noting that actually due to stereotypes of femininity when women commit crimes they are seen as absurd and "really bad" as they aren't the typical warm, nurturing female
This sociologist's study of shoplifting witnessed twice as many males shoplifting - despite the fact that the numbers of female offenders in the official stats is slightly higher. This suggests women shoplifters are MORE LIKELY to be prosecuted than male shoplifters.
She argues that in rape cases it is the victim who is on trial, since she has to prove her respectability in order to have her evidence accepted- which is unfair. i.e. a so called if a women appears to have lead a promiscuous lifestyle- rape may wrongly be seen as inevitable to some jury members
She found Scottish courts were much more likely to jail women whose children were in care than women whom they saw as good mothers. Which suggests a women's criminality and character is based on her ability to parent- this isnt the case for men however
Control Theorists on Female Criminals
They tend to see women' behaviour as determined by external forces such as patriarchal controls or class and gender deals. This however ignores the importance of free will and choice in offending.
She argues that masculinity is an 'accomplishment' - something that men have to constantly work at constructing and presenting to others. She calls this Hegemonic Masculinity and can lead to crime if men feel the need to prove their manhood
The socially approved idea of what a real male is. According to Connell, it 'defines' masculinity through difference from and desire for women.