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reliability
The degree of consistency with which a test measures a trait or attribute. See also test-retest reliability.
replication
A repetition of an experiment that yields the same results.
sample
The subset of the population that the investigator studies in order to learn about the population at large.
standard deviation (SD)
A measure of the variability of a data set, calculated as the square root of the variance (V).
statistical significance
A calculation central to inferential statistics that describes the likelihood that the results of a study happened by chance.
testable hypothesis
A prediction that has been formulated specifically enough so that it is clear what observations would confirm the prediction and what observations would challenge it.
third-variable problem
The possibility that two correlated variables may be changing together only due to the operation of a third variable.
validity
The extent to which a method or procedure measures what it is supposed to measure.
variability
The degree to which scores in a frequency distribution depart from the central value.
variable
Any characteristic whose values can change.
within-subject comparisons
Within a study, comparing the data about each participant in one situation to data about the same participant in another situation.