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The degree of consistency with which a test measures a trait or attribute. See also test-retest reliability.
A repetition of an experiment that yields the same results.
The subset of the population that the investigator studies in order to learn about the population at large.
standard deviation (SD)
A measure of the variability of a data set, calculated as the square root of the variance (V).
statistical significance
A calculation central to inferential statistics that describes the likelihood that the results of a study happened by chance.
testable hypothesis
A prediction that has been formulated specifically enough so that it is clear what observations would confirm the prediction and what observations would challenge it.
third-variable problem
The possibility that two correlated variables may be changing together only due to the operation of a third variable.
The extent to which a method or procedure measures what it is supposed to measure.
The degree to which scores in a frequency distribution depart from the central value.
Any characteristic whose values can change.
within-subject comparisons
Within a study, comparing the data about each participant in one situation to data about the same participant in another situation.