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Received Pronunciation
Received Pronunciation (often abbreviated to RP) is an accent which is used only by a small minority of English speakers in England. It is not associated with any one region. Because of its regional neutrality, it is the accent which is generally shown in dictionaries in the UK (but not, of course, in the USA).
register
Varieties of a language which are each tied to a range of uses: classroom lessons, football commentaries and novels are different though they use the same language. The differences are recognised by variation in vocabulary and grammar.
schwa
The name of a vowel sound that is found only in unstressed positions in English. It is the most common vowel sound in English. It is written as /ə/ in the International Phonetic Alphabet. In the English writing system, it can be written in many different ways.
self-reported usage
People describing their own language use.
Standard English
Recognised as the variety of English used, with only minor variation, as a major world language. Some people use Standard English all the time, in all situations from the most casual to the most formal, so it covers most registers.
stress
A syllable pronounced more forcibly than the syllable next to it. The other syllables are unstressed.
sociolect
The language used by a specific social group or age group. This can refer to lexical and grammatical variation.
slang
Language used informally and widely recognised. It is not simply associated with one specific region.
reflexive pronouns
The pronoun with the suffix -self. Some regions regularise these to produce "hisself" and "theirselves".
rhotic
Accents where speakers produce the post-vocalic /r/