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Sublist 5


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academia
n. the world of learning, teaching, research, etc. at universities, and the people involved in it
academic
n. a person who teaches and/or does research at a university or college
academically
adv. academic
academic
adj. connected with education, especially studying in schools and universities
academy
n. a school or college for special training
adjust
v. to change something slightly to make it more suitable for a new set of conditions or to make it work better
adjustment
n. a small change made to something in order to correct or improve it
alter
v. to become different; to make somebody/something different
alterable
adj. alter
alteration
n. a change to something that makes it different
alternate
n. a person who does a job for somebody who is away
alternately
adv. alternate
alternate
adj. (of two things) happening or following one after the other regularly
alternation
n. alternate
alternate
v. to make things or people follow one after the other in a repeated pattern
amend
v. to change a law, document, statement, etc. slightly in order to correct a mistake or to improve it
amendment
n. a small change or improvement that is made to a law or a document; the process of changing a law or a document
aware
adj. knowing or realizing something
awareness
n. knowing something; knowing that something exists and is important; being interested in something
capacity
n. the number of things or people that a container or space can hold
challenge
v. to question whether a statement or an action is right, legal, etc; to refuse to accept something
challenged
adj. a polite way of referring to somebody who has a disability of some sort
challenger
n. a person who competes with somebody else in sport or in politics for an important position that the other person already holds
challenging
adj. difficult in an interesting way that tests your ability
clause
n. an item in a legal document that says that a particular thing must or must not be done
compound
v. to make something bad become even worse by causing further damage or problems
conflict
v. if two ideas, beliefs, stories, etc.conflict, it is not possible for them to exist together or for them both to be true
consult
v. to go to somebody for information or advice
consultancy
n. a company that gives expert advice on a particular subject to other companies or organizations
consultant
n. a person who knows a lot about a particular subject and is employed to give advice about it to other people
consultation
n. the act of discussing something with somebody or with a group of people before making a decision about it
consultative
adj. giving advice or making suggestions
contact
v. to communicate with somebody, for example by telephone or letter
contactable
adj. contact
decline
v. to become smaller, fewer, weaker, etc
discrete
adj. independent of other things of the same type
discretely
adv. discrete
discreteness
adj. discrete
discretion
n. the freedom or power to decide what should be done in a particular situation
discretionary
adj. decided according to the judgement of a person in authority about what is necessary in each particular situation; not decided by rules
draft
v. to write the first rough version of something such as a letter, speech or book
enable
v. to make it possible for somebody to do something
energetic
adj. having or needing a lot of energy and enthusiasm
energetically
adv. energetic
energy
n. the ability to put effort and enthusiasm into an activity, work, etc
enforce
v. to make sure that people obey a particular law or rule
enforceable
adj. enforce
enforcement
n. enforce
enforced
v. that somebody is forced to do or experience without being able to control it
entity
n. something that exists separately from other things and has its own identity
equivalence
n. equivalent
equivalent
adj. equal in value, amount, meaning, importance, etc
evolution
n. (biology) the gradual development of plants, animals, etc. over many years as they adapt to changes in their environment
evolutionarily
adv. evolutionary
evolutionary
adj. connected with evolution; connected with gradual development and change
evolutionism
n. evolutionist
evolutionist
adj. relating to the theories of evolution and natural selection
evolve
v. to develop gradually, especially from a simple to a more complicated form; to develop something in this way
expand
v. to become greater in size, number or importance; to make something greater in size, number or importance
expansion
n. an act of increasing or making something increase in size, amount or importance
expansionism
n. the belief in and process of increasing the size and importance of something, especially in a country or a business
expansionist
adj. expansionism
expansionist
n. expansionism
expansive
adj. covering a large amount of space
expansiveness
n. expansive
expansively
adv. expansive
expose
v. to show something that is usually hidden
exposed
adj. (of a place) not protected from the weather by trees, buildings or high ground
exposure
n. the state of being in a place or situation where there is no protection from something harmful or unpleasant
external
adj. connected with or located on the outside of something/somebody
externality
n. (economics) a consequence of an industrial or commercial activity which affects other people or things without this being reflected in market prices
externalize
v. to show what you are thinking and feeling by what you say or do
externalization
n. externalize
externally
adv. external
facilitate
v. to make an action or a process possible or easier
facilitation
n. facilitate
facilitator
n. a person who helps somebody do something more easily by discussing problems, giving advice, etc. rather than telling them what to do
facility
n. buildings, services, equipment, etc. that are provided for a particular purpose
fundamental
n. a basic rule or principle; an essential part
fundamentally
adv. in every way that is important; completely
generate
v. to produce or create something
generation
n. all the people who were born at about the same time
illogicality
n. illogical
illogically
adv. illogical
illogical
adj. not sensible or thought out in a logical way
image
n. the impression that a person, an organization or a product, etc. gives to the public
imagery
n. language that produces pictures in the minds of people reading or listening
imprecisely
adv. imprecise
imprecision
n. imprecise
imprecise
adj. not giving exact details or making something clear
incapacitate
v. to make somebody/something unable to live or work normally
indiscretion
n. an act or remark that is indiscreet, especially one that is not morally acceptable
instability
n. the quality of a situation in which things are likely to change or fail suddenly
liberal
n. a person who understands and respects other people's opinions and behaviour, especially when they are different from their own
liberalism
n. liberal opinions and beliefs, especially in politics
liberalize
v. to make something such as a law or a political or religious system less strict
liberalization
n. liberalize
liberally
adv. liberal
liberate
v. to free a country or a person from the control of somebody else
liberation
n. liberate
liberator
n. liberate
liberated
adj. free from the restrictions of traditional ideas about social and sexual behaviour
license
n. an official document that shows that permission has been given to do, own or use something a driving licence
licensed
adj. having official permission to sell alcoholic drinks
logic
n. a way of thinking or explaining something
logical
adj. seeming natural, reasonable or sensible
logically
adv. logical
logician
n. a person who studies or is skilled in logic
margin
n. the empty space at the side of a written or printed page
marginal
n. a seat in a parliament, on a local council, etc. that was won by a very small number of votes
marginally
adv. very slightly; not very much
medical
n. a thorough examination of your body that a doctor does, for example, before you start a particular job
medically
adv. medical
medical
adj. connected with illness and injury and their treatment
mental
adj. connected with or happening in the mind; involving the process of thinking
mentality
n. the particular attitude or way of thinking of a person or group
mentally
adv. connected with or happening in the mind
modification
n. the act or process of changing something in order to improve it or make it more acceptable; a change that is made
modify
v. to change something slightly, especially in order to make it more suitable for a particular purpose
monitor
v. to watch and check something over a period of time in order to see how it develops, so that you can make any necessary changes
network
v. (computing) to connect a number of computers and other devices together so that equipment and information can be shared
notion
n. an idea, a belief or an understanding of something
objective
adj. not influenced by personal feelings or opinions; considering only facts
objectively
adv. objective
objectivity
n. objective
objective
n. something that you are trying to achieve
objective lens
n. the lens in a telescope or microscope that is nearest to the object being looked at
orient
v. to direct somebody/something towards something; to make or adapt somebody/something for a particular purpose
orientation
n. the type of aims or interests that a person or an organization has; the act of directing your aims towards a particular thing
perspective
n. a particular attitude towards something; a way of thinking about something
precise
adj. clear and accurate
precisely
adv. exactly
precision
n. the quality of being exact, accurate and careful
primacy
n. the fact of being the most important person or thing
prime
v. to prepare somebody for a situation so that they know what to do, especially by giving them special information
psychological
adj. connected with a person's mind and the way in which it works
psychologically
adv. psychological
psychologist
n. a scientist who studies and is trained in psychology
psychology
n. the scientific study of the mind and how it influences behaviour
pursue
v. to do something or try to achieve something over a period of time
pursuit
n. the act of looking for or trying to find something
ratio
n. the relationship between two groups of people or things that is represented by two numbers showing how much larger one group is than the other
readjust
v. to get used to a changed or new situation
readjustment
n. readjust
redraft
v. & n. to write an article, a letter, etc. again in order to improve it or make changes
reject
n. something that cannot be used or sold because there is something wrong with it
reject
v. to refuse to accept or consider something
rejection
n. reject
reorient
v. to change the focus or direction of somebody/something
reorientation
n. reorient
revenue
n. the money that a government receives from taxes or that an organization, etc. receives from its business
social security
n. money that the government pays regularly to people who are poor, unemployed, sick, etc
stability
n.the quality or state of being steady and not changing or being disturbed in any way (= the quality of being stable)
stabilization
n. stabilize
stabilize
v. to become or to make something become firm, steady and unlikely to change; to make something stable
stable
v. to put or keep a horse in a stable
stable
n. a building in which horses are kept
stably
n. stable
stable
adj. firmly fixed; not likely to move, change or fail
style
v. to design, make or shape something in a particular way
styling
n. the act of cutting and/or shaping hair in a particular style
stylish
adj. fashionable; elegant and attractive
stylishly
adv. stylish
stylishness
n. stylish
stylization
n. stylized
stylized
adj. drawn, written, etc. in a way that is not natural or realistic
substitute
n. a person or thing that you use or have instead of the one you normally use or have
substitute
v. to take the place of somebody/something else; to use somebody/something instead of somebody/something else
substitution
n. substitute
sustain
v. to provide enough of what somebody/something needs in order to live or exist
sustainable
adj. involving the use of natural products and energy in a way that does not harm the environment
sustainability
n. sustainable
sustainably
adv. sustainable
sustenance
n. the food and drink that people, animals and plants need to live and stay healthy
symbol
n. a person, an object, an event, etc. that represents a more general quality or situation
symbolic
adj. containing symbols, or being used as a symbol
symbolically
adv. symbolic
symbolism
n. the use of symbols to represent ideas, especially in art and literature
symbolist
n. symbolism
symbolize
v. to be a symbol of something
target
v. to aim an attack or a criticism at somebody/something
transit
v. to pass across or through an area
transition
n. the process or a period of changing from one state or condition to another
transitional
adj. transition
transitory
adj. continuing for only a short time
trend
n. a general direction in which a situation is changing or developing
unalterable
adj. that cannot be changed
unaltered
adj. that has not changed or been changed
unaware
adj. not knowing or realizing that something is happening or that something exists
unawareness
n. unaware
unlicensed
adj. without a licence
unmodified
adj. not modified
unstable
adj. likely to change suddenly
unsustainable
adj. that cannot be continued at the same level, rate, etc
version
n. a form of something that is slightly different from an earlier form or from other forms of the same thing
welfare
n. the general health, happiness and safety of a person, an animal or a group
whereas
conj. used to compare or contrast two facts