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analyse
v. to examine the nature or structure of something, especially by separating it into its parts, in order to understand or explain it
analysis
n. the detailed study or examination of something in order to understand more about it; the result of the study
analyst
n. a person whose job involves examining facts or materials in order to give an opinion on them
analytic
adj. using word order rather than word endings to show the functions of words in a sentence
analytical
adj. using a logical method of thinking about something in order to understand it, especially by looking at all the parts separately
analytically
adv. analytical
approach
n. a way of dealing with somebody/something; a way of doing or thinking about something such as a problem or a task
approachable
adj. friendly and easy to talk to; easy to understand
area
n. part of a place, town, etc, or a region of a country or the world
assess
v. to make a judgement about the nature or quality of somebody/something
assessable
adj. assess
assessment
n. an opinion or a judgement about somebody/something that has been thought about very carefully
assume
v. to think or accept that something is true but without having proof of it
assumed
adj. that you suppose to be true or to exist
assuming
conj. used to suppose that something is true so that you can talk about what the results might be
assumption
[U] n. a belief or feeling that something is true or that something will happen, although there is no proof
authoritative
adj. showing that you expect people to obey and respect you
authoritatively
adv. authoritative
authority
[U] n. the power to give orders to people
availability
[U] n. available
available
adj. (of things) that you can get, buy or find ; (of a person) free to see or talk to people
beneficial
adj. improving a situation; having a helpful or useful effect
beneficiary
n. a person who gains as a result of something
benefit
v. to be useful to somebody or improve their life in some way
indicator
n. a sign that shows you what something is like or how a situation is changing
concept
n. an idea or a principle that is connected with something abstract
conception
[U] n. the process of forming an idea or a plan
conceptual
adj. related to or based on ideas
conceptualize
v. to form an idea of something in your mind
conceptually
adv. conceptual
consist
v. to have something as the main or only part or feature
consistency
n. the quality of always behaving in the same way or of having the same opinions, standard, etc; the quality of being consistent
consistent
adj. always behaving in the same way, or having the same opinions, standards, etc
consistently
adv. consistent
constituency
n. a district that elects its own representative to parliament
constituent
adj. forming or helping to make a whole
constitute
v. to be considered to be something
constitution
n. the system of laws and basic principles that a state, a country or an organization is governed by
constitutional
n. a short walk that people take because it is good for their health
constitutionally
adv. constitutional
constitutive
adj. forming a part, often an essential part, of something
context
n. the situation in which something happens and that helps you to understand it
contextual
adj. connected with a particular context
contextually
adv. contextual
contextualize
v. to consider something in relation to the situation in which it happens or exists
contextualization
n. contextualize
contract
v. to become less or smaller; to make something become less or smaller
contractor
n. a person or company that has a contract to do work or provide goods or services for another company
create
v. to make something happen or exist
creation
n. the act or process of making something that is new, or of causing something to exist that did not exist before
creative
n. a person who is creative
creative
adj. involving the use of skill and the imagination to produce something new or a work of art
creatively
adv. creative
creativity
[U] n. Creative
creator
n. a person who has made or invented a particular thing
data
n. facts or information, especially when examined and used to find out things or to make decisions
definable
adj. define
define
v. to say or explain what the meaning of a word or phrase is
definition
n. an explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase, especially in a dictionary; the act of stating the meanings of words and phrases
derivation
n. the origin or development of something, especially a word
derivative
adj. copied from something else; not having new or original ideas
derive
v. to come or develop from something
disestablish
v. to end the official status of a national Church
disestablishment
n. disestablish
dissimilar
adj. not the same
dissimilarity
n. dissimilar
distribute
v. to give things to a large number of people; to share something between a number of people
distribution
n. the way that something is shared or exists over a particular area or among a particular group of people
distributional
adj. distribution
distributive
adj. connected with distribution of goods
distributor
n. a person or company that supplies goods to shops/stores, etc
economic
adj. connected with the trade, industry and development of wealth of a country, an area or a society
economical
adj. providing good service or value in relation to the amount of time or money spent
economically
adv. in a way connected with the trade, industry and development of wealth of a country, an area or a society
economics
[u] n. the study of how a society organizes its money, trade and industry
economist
n. a person who studies or writes about economics
economy
n. the relationship between production, trade and the supply of money in a particular country or region
environment
n. the conditions that affect the behaviour and development of somebody/something; the physical conditions that somebody/something exists in
environmental
adj. connected with the natural conditions in which people, animals and plants live; connected with the environment
environmentalist
n. a person who is concerned about the natural environment and wants to improve and protect it
environmentalism
n. environmentalist
environmentally
adv. connected with the conditions that affect the behaviour and development of somebody/something
establish
v. to start or create an organization, a system, etc. that is meant to last for a long time
established
adj. respected or given official status because it has existed or been used for a long time
establishment
n. an organization, a large institution or a hotel
estimate
v. to form an idea of the cost, size, value etc. of something, but without calculating it exactly
estimation
n. a judgement or opinion about the value or quality of somebody/something
evidence
v. to prove or show something; to be evidence of something
evident
adj. clear; easily seen
evidential
adj. providing or connected with evidence
evidently
adv. clearly; that can be seen or understood easily
export
n. the selling and transporting of goods to another country
exporter
n. a person, company or country that sells goods to another country
factor
v. to include a particular fact or situation when you are thinking about or planning something
finance
v. to provide money for a project
financial
adj. connected with money and finance
financially
adv. financial
financier
n. a person who lends large amounts of money to businesses
finance
[u] n. money used to run a business, an activity or a project
formula
n. a series of letters, numbers or symbols that represent a rule or law
formula milk
comp. a type of liquid food for babies, given instead of breast milk
formulate
v. to create or prepare something carefully, giving particular attention to the details
formulation
n. formulate
full stop
adv. used at the end of a sentence to emphasize that there is nothing more to say about a subject
function
v. to work in the correct way
functional
adj. practical and useful; with little or no decoration
functionally
adv. functional
identify
v. to recognize somebody/something and be able to say who or what they are
identifiable
adj. that can be recognized
identification
n. the process of showing, proving or recognizing who or what somebody/something is
identity
n. who or what somebody/something is
illegal
n. a person who lives or works in a country illegally
illegality
n. the state of being illegal
illegally
adv. illegal
income
n. the money that a person, a region, a country, etc. earns from work, from investing money, from business, etc
inconsistency
n. inconsistent
inconsistent
adj. if two statements, etc. are inconsistent, or one is inconsistent with the other, they cannot both be true because they give the facts in a different way
inconsistently
adv. inconsistent
indicate
v. to show that something is true or exists
indication
n. a remark or sign that shows that something is happening or what somebody is thinking or feeling
indicative
n. the form of a verb that states a fact
indicator
n. a sign that shows you what something is like or how a situation is changing
indiscreet
adj. not careful about what you say or do, especially when this embarrasses or offends somebody
indiscreetly
adv. indiscreet
individual
n. a person considered separately rather than as part of a group
individualism
n. the quality of being different from other people and doing things in your own way
individualist
n. individualism
individualistic
adj. individualism
individuality
n. the qualities that make somebody/something different from other people or things
individually
adv. separately, rather than as a group
insignificance
n. insignificant
insignificant
adj. not big or valuable enough to be considered important
insignificantly
adv. insignificant
interpret
v. to explain the meaning of something
interpretable
adj. interpret
interpretation
n. the particular way in which something is understood or explained
interpretative
adj. connected with the particular way in which something is understood, explained or performed; providing an interpretation
invariable
adj. always the same; never changing
invariably
adv. always
involve
v. if a situation, an event or an activity involves something, that thing is an important or necessary part or result of it
involved
adj. taking part in something; being part of something or connected with something
involvement
n. the act of taking part in something
isolating
adj. analytic
issue
v. 1 to make something known formally - 2 to give something to somebody, especially officially
issuer
n. issue
labor
v. to try very hard to do something difficult
legal
adj. connected with the law
legality
n. the fact of being legal
legally
adv. legal
legislate
v. to make a law affecting something
legislation
n. a law or a set of laws passed by a parliament
legislative
adj. connected with the act of making and passing laws
legislator
n. a member of a group of people that has the power to make laws
legislature
n. a group of people who have the power to make and change laws
major
v. to study something as your main subject at a university or college
majority
n. the largest part of a group of people or things
method
n. a particular way of doing something
methodical
adj. done in a careful and logical way
methodically
adv. methodical
methodological
adj. methodology
methodologically
adv. methodological
methodology
n. a set of methods and principles used to perform a particular activity
misinterpret
v. to understand something/somebody wrongly
misinterpretation
n. misinterpret
occur
v. to happen
occurrence
n. something that happens or exists
overestimate
n. an estimate about the size, cost, etc. of something that is too high
overestimate
v. to estimate something to be larger, better, more important, etc. than it really is
percentage
n. the number, amount, rate of something, expressed as if it is part of a total which is 100; a part or share of a whole
period
adj. having a style typical of a particular time in history
periodic
adj. happening fairly often and regularly
periodical
n. a magazine that is published every week, month, etc, especially one that is concerned with an academic subject
periodically
adv. periodic
policy
n. a plan of action agreed or chosen by a political party, a business, etc
principle
n. 1 a moral rule or a strong belief that influences your actions - 2 a law, a rule or a theory that something is based on
principled
adj. having strong beliefs about what is right and wrong; based on strong beliefs
procedural
adj. procedure
procedure
n. a way of doing something, especially the usual or correct way
proceed
v. to continue doing something that has already been started; to continue being done
proceeding
n. the process of using a court to settle a disagreement or to deal with a complaint
proceeds
n. the money that you receive when you sell something or organize a performance, etc; profits
process
v. to treat raw material, food, etc. in order to change it, preserve it, etc
processing
n. process
reassess
v. to think again about something to decide if you need to change your opinion of it
reassessment
n. reassess
recreate
v. to make something that existed in the past exist or seem to exist again
recreation
v. recreate
redefine
v. to change the nature or limits of something; to make people consider something in a new way
redefinition
n. redefine
redistribute
v. to share something out among people in a different way
redistribution
n. redistribute
redistributive
adj. redistribute
reformulate
v. to create or prepare something again
reformulation
n. reformulate
reinterpret
v.to interpret something in a new or different way
reinterpretation
n. reinterpret
reoccur
v. to happen again or a number of times
require
v. to need something; to depend on somebody/something
requirement
n. something that you need or want
research
v. to study something carefully and try to discover new facts about it
researcher
n. research
research
n. a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it
respond
to give a spoken or written answer to somebody/something
respondent
n. a person who answers questions, especially in a survey
response
n. a spoken or written answer
responsive
adj. reacting quickly and in a positive way
responsively
adv. responsive
responsiveness
n. responsive
restructure
v. to organize something such as a system or a company in a new and different way
restructuring
n. restructure
role
n. the function or position that somebody has or is expected to have in an organization, in society or in a relationship
section
v. 1 (medical) to divide body tissue by cutting - 2 ~ sth off : to separate an area from a larger one
sector
n. a part of an area of activity, especially of a country's economy
significance
n. the importance of something, especially when this has an effect on what happens in the future
significant
adj. large or important enough to have an effect or to be noticed
significantly
adv. in a way that is large or important enough to have an effect on something or to be noticed
signify
v. to be a sign of something
similar
adj. like somebody/something but not exactly the same
similarity
n. the state of being like somebody/something but not exactly the same
similarly
adv. in almost the same way
source
v. to get something from a particular place
specific
adj. detailed and exact
specifically
adv. in a detailed and exact way
specification
n. a detailed description of how something is, or should be, designed or made
specificity
n. the quality of being specific
specifics
n. the details of a subject that you need to think about or discuss
structural
adj. connected with the way in which something is built or organized
structurally
adv. structural
structure
v. to arrange or organize something into a system or pattern
theoretical
adj. concerned with the ideas and principles on which a particular subject is based, rather than with practice and experiment
theoretically
adv. theoretical
theorist
n. a person who develops ideas and principles about a particular subject in order to explain why things happen or exist
theory
n. a formal set of ideas that is intended to explain why something happens or exists
turn signal
n. a light on a vehicle that flashes to show that the vehicle is going to turn left or right
unapproachable
adj. unfriendly and not easy to talk to
unavailability
n. unavailable
unavailable
adj. that cannot be obtained
unconstitutional
adj. not allowed by the constitution of a country, a political system or an organization
unconstitutionally
adv. unconstitutional
undefined
adj. not made clear or definite
underestimate
n. an estimate about the size, cost, etc. of something that is too low
uneconomical
adj. using too much time or money, or too many materials, and therefore not likely to make a profit
unidentifiable
adj. mpossible to identify
uninvolved
adj. not taking part in something; not connected with somebody/something, especially on an emotional level
unprincipled
without moral principles
unresponsive
adj. not reacting to somebody/something; not giving the response that you would expect or hope for
unstructured
adj. without structure or organization
variability
[u] n. the fact of something being likely to vary
variable
n. a situation, number or quantity that can vary or be varied
variably
adv. variable
variance
n. the amount by which something changes or is different from something else
variant
n. & adj. a thing that is a slightly different form or type of something else
variation
n. 1 a change, especially in the amount or level of something - 2 a thing that is different from other things in the same general group
varied
adj. 1 of many different types - 2 not staying the same, but changing often
vary
v. to be different from each other in size, shape, etc.