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Thermodynamics


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Thermodynamic System
A region of space, marked off by its boundary, that contains a quantity of matter the behaviour of which is under investigation.
Closed System
A system that contains a fixed quantity of matter. The boundary then does not allow mass transfer in or out of the system. However work and heat can cross boundaries.
Open System
A system that is characterised by imaginary boundaries which are permeable, allowing mass flow, work and heat transfer in and out.
Intensive Properties
Properties that do not depend on the mass of substance in a system (e.g. pressure and temperature).
Extensive Properties
Properties that depend on the mass of subtance in a system (e.g. volume).
Specific Properties
Properties that are reduced to unit mass of substance to acquire the meaning of intensive properties.
Isothermal Process
A constant temperature process.
Isochoric/Isometric Process
A constant voume process.
Isobaric Process
A constant pressure process.
Adiabatic Process
A process in which heat does not cross the system boundary.
Reversible Process
A process that passes through a continuous series of equilibrium states.
Irreversible Process
A process that evolves through a succession of non-equilibrium states.
Heat
The form of energy that is transferred across the boundary of a system at a given temperature to another system at a lower temperature by virtue of the temperature difference between the two systems.
Work
When the point of application of a force undergoes a displacement.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Conservation of Energy; energy does not vanish nor does it appear anew, it only passes from one form of energy into another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Heat does not flow from cold to hot (Clausius Statement).
First Law (Axiom)
When a closed system is taken through a thermodynamic cycle, the sum of the net work and net heat transfer is zero. W + Q = 0
Thermally Insulated
When heat transfer cannot take place.
Thermally Isolated
If heat and work transfer cannot take place.
1st Corollary of 1st Law
The change in internal energy of a closed system is equal to the sum of the heat transferred and the work done during any change of state.
2nd Corollary of 1st Law
The internal energy of a closed system remains unchanged if it is thermally isolated from its surroundings.
Heat Capacity
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a system by one degree.
Specific Heat Capacity
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of substance by one degree.
Cp
Specific heat capacity at constant pressure.
Cv
Specific heat capacity at constant volume.
Specific Heat Transfer
The __________ to a closed system during a constant-volume process is equal to the change in specific internal energy of the system.
Ideal Gas (Thermodynamic Definition)
A gas that obeys the ideal gas equation and its Cp an Cv are constant.
Polytropic Process
A process in which pressure and volume changes follow the relationship pv^n = constant.
Isentropic Process
A process in which there is no change in entropy. Behaves as a polytropic process with polytropic index n = gamma.