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Nutrition and health


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Government scheme encouraging people to eat five portions of fruits and vegetables every day
5 A Day campaign
An icon of a plate, which representing the proportions of different food groups we should eat
The Eatwell Plate
A diet containing all kinds of food in the ideal proportions
Healthy Balanced Diet
Someone with so much weight, it is dangerous for their health.
Obesity
Vitamins and minerals required in smaller amounts
Micronutrients
Foods which are needed in bigger quantities (eg. protein, fat, carbohydrate)
Macronutrients
Starch, fibre, calcium, iron, B vitamins
Nutrients in 'Bread, cereals, potatoes' group
Vitamin C, carotenes folates, fibre, some carbohydrate
Nutrients in 'Fruit and vegetables' group
Calcium, protein, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D
Nutrients in 'Milk and Dairy' group
Iron, protein, B vitamins, zinc, magnesium
Nutrients in 'Meat, Fish and other non-dairy protein sources' group
UK government body that looks at food problems
Food Standards Agency
Foods with parts from several groups on the eatwell plate
Combination Foods
Essential fatty acids, some vitamins, fat, sugar, salt
Nutrients in 'High fat/sugar' group
An additive to prolong shelf life and prevent fat-soluble vitamin loss and stop fatty food from going bad
Antioxidants (additive)
Reference nutrient intakes
RNIs
Dietary reference values
DRVs
Estimated average requirements
EARs
Lower reference nutrient intake
LRNI
Ideal amount of each nutrient required by the average person per day
Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs)
Energy taken in from food = energy output from activity
Energy Balance
How carbohydrate is stored in the body
Glycogen
Energy used when body is at rest
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Way to estimate body fat of a human
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Heart disease, diabetes, bowel problems, cancer, joint problems, psychological issues
Diseases linked to obesity
Unit of energy used for food
Kcal
A protein that speeds up a chemical reaction, but isn't used up
Enzyme
A mineral in poor supply in the diet
Deficiency
Adding nutrients to food products
Food fortification
Fats from animal sources -bad for health
Saturated Fats
Fats not from animal sources -beneficial to health
Unsaturated Fats
Hydrogenated fats (bad for health)
Trans Fats
Amino acids that must be taken in through consumption as they cannot be made in the body
Essential Fatty Acids
Fat that is not obviously in a product
Hidden Fat
Polysaccharides that are made up of glucose units (starch, etc)
Complex Carbohydrates
Sugars found in tables sugar/ sweets
Non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMEs)
Contains insoluble and soluble fibre. It is not absorbed by the body, but is needed for a healthy digestive system
Non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)
A method to analyse fibre that is used for NSP measurement
Englyst Method
The measure of the impacts of carbohydrates on blood glucose levels
Glycaemic Index