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Neurotransmitters


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Indolamine
Organic compounds made up of indole groups that have an amine group on them; e.g. Serotonin, Melatonin, or N,N-dimethyltryptamine (hallucinogen).
Catecholamine
A monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups) and a side-chain amine; derived from tyrosine; e.g. adrenaline / epinephrine, noradrenaline / dorepinephrine, dopamine.
Dopamine system
NT system involved in motor system, reward system, cognition, endocrine, nausea; four distinct pathways.
Adrenalin / Epinephrine system
NT system Involved in arousal & reward system; Originates in Locus Coeruleus; targets spinal cord, thalamus, hypothalamus, striatum, neocortex, cingulate gyrus, cingulum, hippocampus, & amygdala; other system stems from Lateral Tegmental Field and targets the hypothalamus.
Serotonin system
NT system involved in mood, satiety, body temperature and sleep, while decreasing nociception; Two main pathways - 1) stemming from caudal dorsal raphe nucleus and projecting to deep cerebellar nuclei, cerebellar cortex, & spinal cord 2) stemming from rostral dorsal raphe nucleus and projecting to thalamus, striatum, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, neocortex, cingulate gyrus, cingulum, hippocampus, & amygdala.
Cholinergic system
NT system that is involved in muscle and motor control system, learning, short-term memory, arousal, & reward; Three main pathways - 1) stemming from Pedunculopontine nucleus and dorsolateral tegmental nuclei (pontomesencephalotegmental complex) and projecting to brainstem, deep cerebellar nuclei, pontine nuclei, locus ceruleus, raphe nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olive, thalamus, tectum, basal ganglia, & basal forebrain - 2) stemming from basal optic nucleus of Meynert and projecting to the neocortex - 3) stemming from medial septal nucleus and projecting to the hippocampus & neocortex.
GABA
Gamma-aminobutyric acid; involved in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system; an amino acid.
Glutaminergic system
NT system of an amino acid transmitter; involved in n long-term potentiation and learning and memory; generally excitatory; also involved in regulation of growth cones and synaptogenesis.
Neuropeptides
Group of psychologically active short chains of amino acid monomers linked by XX (amide) bonds; e.g. opioids, Substance P, endorphins, enkephalins, or dynorphins.
Opioid peptides
Peptides that act on bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides; taken in through food intake.
Endorphins
Endogenous opioid peptides that function as inhibitory neurotransmitters; produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise, excitement, pain, spicy food consumption, love, and sexual activity.
Enkephalin
A pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body; endogeneous ligands; acting on the delta opioid receptors.
Dynorphin
A class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin; sometimes co-localised with GABA and can be involved of DA inhibition.
Substance P
A neuropeptide - a substance that functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator; an important element in pain perception; coexists with the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in primary afferents that respond to painful stimulation; has been associated with the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress, reinforcement, neurogenesis, respiratory rhythm, neurotoxicity, nausea/emesis, pain and nociception.