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Characteristics of brain anatomy


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Sulcus
A depression, fissure, or "valley" in the surface of the brain.
Satellite cells
Glial cells that surround neurons in sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia. These cells help regulate the external chemical environment. Like astrocytes, they are interconnected by gap junctions and respond to ATP by elevating intracellular concentration of calcium ions. They are highly sensitive to injury and inflammation, and appear to contribute to pathological states, such as chronic pain.
Neo-cortical
Part of the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres
Ventricular system or ventricles
A set of four structures, the ventricles, containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. It is continuous with the central canal of spinal cord. The ventricle lining consists of an epithelium-like membrane called ependyma.
Schwann cells
Glia cells that provide myelination to axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). They also have phagocytotic activity and clear cellular debris that allows for regrowth of PNS neurons.
Tanycytes
Glia cells descend from radial glia, in the hypothalamus.
Cortex
(Lt. Bark). At the outside of the brain.
Oligodendrocytes
Glia cells that coat axons in the central nervous system (CNS) with their cell membrane, forming a specialized membrane differentiation called myelin, producing the so-called myelin sheath. The myelin sheath provides insulation to the axon that allows electrical signals to propagate more efficiently.
White matter
Tissue that is made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other.
Grey matter
Tissue that contains the cell bodies dendrites and axon terminals of neurons, so it is where all synapses are.
Neuroglia
General term for non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system.
Fissure
A particularly deep sulcus
Enteric glial cells
Glia cells that are found in the intrinsic ganglia of the digestive system. They are thought to have many roles in the enteric system, some related to homeostasis and muscular digestive processes.
Ependymal cells
Glia cells that line the spinal cord and the ventricular system of the brain. These cells are involved in the creation and secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and beat their cilia to help circulate the CSF and make up the blood-CSF barrier. They are also thought to act as neural stem cells.
Pituicytes
Glia cells with characteristics in common to astrocytes, but in the posterior pituitary
Gyrus
A ridge or "mountain" of the cerebral cortex.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
A clear colourless bodily fluid found in the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexus of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull, and it serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow.
Radial glia
Arise from neuroepithelial cells after the onset of neurogenesis. More restricted differentiation abilities than those of neuroepithelial cells. During development, they function both as neuronal progenitors and as a scaffold upon which newborn neurons migrate. In adulthood only present in the cerebellum (Bergmann glia, regulating synaptic plasticity) and retina (Müller cell, participates in a bidirectional communication).
Sub-cortical
Not part of the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres
Pallium
The layers of gray and white matter that cover the upper surface of the cerebrum in vertebrates.
Astrocytes
• Most abundant type of macroglial cell in the CNS • Regulate the external chemical environment of neurons by removing excess ions, the notable one being potassium, and recycling neurotransmitters released during synaptic • May be the predominant "building-blocks" of the BBB.
Microglia
Specialized macrophages capable of phagocytosis that protect neurons of the central nervous system.
Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB)
A highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).
Commissure
The place where two things are joined
Dura
Supporting veins in the skull; a thick membrane that is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord
Arcuate fasciculus
Lateral association pathway connecting the perisylvian cortices of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe; Left -Language, praxis, and verbal working memory; Right - Visuospatial processing and some aspect of language, e.g. prosody and semantics
Arachnoid
"Cushioning"; One of the three meninges
Pituitary gland
An endocrine gland off the bottom of the hypothalamus; it synthesizes and secretes the a number of important endocrine hormones.
Pia
One of the meninges; It is the meningeal envelope that firmly adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord, following all of the brain's contours (the gyri and sulci).
Cranial nerves
The nerves that emerge indirectly from the brain (including the brainstem)
Spinal nerves
Mixed nerves, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body
Cervical nerves
Spinal nerves from the cervical vertebrae. Although there are seven cervical vertebrae (C1-C7), there are eight cervical nerves C1–C8.
Thoracic nerves
12 spinal nerves emerging from the thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar nerves
The lumbar nerves are the five spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. They are divided into posterior and anterior divisions.
Sacral nerves
The sacral nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves which exit the sacrum at the lower end of the vertebral column
Coccygeal nerve
The 31st pair of spinal nerves.
Neuropil
Any area in the nervous system composed of mostly unmyelinated axons, dendrites and glial cell processes that forms a synaptically dense region containing a relatively low number of cell bodies.