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C1.4 Crude Oil and Fuels


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Mixture
When some elements or compounds are put together and intermingle but do not react.
Fractions
Hydrocarbons with similar boiling points separated from crude oil.
Distillation
Separation of a liquid from a mixture by evaporation followed by condensation.
CnH2n+2
General formula of alkanes.
Hydrocarbon
A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Alkane
A saturated hydrocarbon.
Saturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon that do not contain double bonds.
Flammable
Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly.
Fractional distillation
A way of separating liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling them off at different temperatures then condensing and collecting the liquids.
Oxidation
A reaction where oxygen is added to a substance (or electrons are lost).
Sulfur dioxide
A toxic gas whose formula is SO2, and which causes acid rain.
Incomplete combustion
When a fuel burns with insufficient oxygen, producing carbon monoxide as a toxic byproduct.
Carbon monoxide
A toxic gas with the formula CO
Nitrogen Oxides
A gaseous pollutant produced by motor vehicles, a cause of acid rain.
Particulates
Very small solid particles given off by motor vehicles as a result of incomplete combustion.
Global warming
The increasing of the average temperature of the Earth.
Global dimming
The reflection of sunlight by solid particles in the air.
Catalytic converter
Fitted to the exhaust of motor vehicles to reduce the amount of pollutants released.
Biofuels
Fuels made from animal or plant products.
Biodiesel
Fuel for cars made from plant oils.